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Optimization of picosecond laser structuring for the monolithic serial interconnection of CIS solar cells


  • This article was published online on [23 January 2012]. Error was subsequently identified. This notice is included in the online and print versions to indicate that both have been corrected [10 September 2012].

Correspondence: Gerhard Heise, Laser Center, Munich University of Applied Sciences, Lothstrasse 34, 80335 Munich, Germany.



We report on the optimization of selective picosecond laser structuring for the monolithic serial interconnection of (Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2) CIS thin film solar cells. We introduce a quantitative value to compare the energy efficiency of the different investigated laser processes, the specific ablation energy, which indicates the required energy to remove a certain volume of the specific material. We have examined the structuring efficiencies for induced laser ablation processes for a modification of the beam profile (elliptical and flat-top beam shaping) and for the application of different laser wavelengths (1064 and 532 nm). Application of induced laser processes (often referred as “lift-off”) decreases the specific ablation energy dramatically by nearly one order of magnitude. Modifications of the beam profile such as elliptical and flat-top beam shaping are nearly halving the energy per ablated volume relative to a circular beam. The application of a laser wavelength 532 nm decreases the specific ablation energy compared with 1064 nm significantly for processes involving the CIS layer. We finally demonstrate that with a picosecond laser power of only 2 W, the molybdenum back contact (P1, glass side) and the ZnO front contact (P3, ZnO on CIS) can be structured with a process speed of up to 4 m/s. About 2 µm thick CIS layer (P2) is structured by standard direct laser ablation at higher energy densities with 200 mm/s. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.