Multicrystalline solar cells break down strongly at reverse voltages well below the theoretical limit. Previous explanations were based on assuming a constant depth of the junction below the surface. In this work, preferred phosphorous diffusion at special line defects in grain boundaries is shown to lead to spikes in the p–n junctions even below flat surfaces. The curvature radii of the spherical p–n junction bending are measured by electron beam-induced current to be in the range of 300–500 nm, leading to the observed type III avalanche breakdown voltages. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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