Improvement of the cell performance in the ZnS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by the sputter deposition of a bilayer ZnO : Al film

Authors


Correspondence: Byung Tae Ahn, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305–701, Korea.

E-mail: btahn@kaist.ac.kr

ABSTRACT

ZnS is a candidate to replace CdS as the buffer layer in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells for Cd-free commercial product. However, the resistance of ZnS is too large, and the photoconductivity is too small. Therefore, the thickness of the ZnS should be as thin as possible. However, a CIGS solar cell with a very thin ZnS buffer layer is vulnerable to the sputtering power of the ZnO : Al window layer deposition because of plasma damage. To improve the efficiency of CIGS solar cells with a chemical-bath-deposited ZnS buffer layer, the effect of the plasma damage by the sputter deposition of the ZnO : Al window layer should be understood. We have found that the efficiency of a CIGS solar cell consistently decreases with an increase in the sputtering power for the ZnO : Al window layer deposition onto the ZnS buffer layer because of plasma damage. To protect the ZnS/CIGS interface, a bilayer ZnO : Al film was developed. It consists of a 50-nm-thick ZnO : Al plasma protection layer deposited at a sputtering power of 50 W and a 100-nm-thick ZnO : Al conducting layer deposited at a sputtering power of 200 W. The introduction of a 50-nm-thick ZnO : Al layer deposited at 50 W prevented plasma damage by sputtering, resulting in a high open-circuit voltage, a large fill factor, and shunt resistance. The ZnS/CIGS solar cell with the bilayer ZnO : Al film yielded a cell efficiency of 14.68%. Therefore, the application of bilayer ZnO : Al film to the window layer is suitable for CIGS solar cells with a ZnS buffer layer. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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