Determination of activation barriers for the diffusion of sodium through CIGS thin-film solar cells
Article first published online: 5 DEC 2003
Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications
Volume 11, Issue 8, pages 543–548, December 2003
How to Cite
Zellner, M. B., Birkmire, R. W., Eser, E., Shafarman, W. N. and Chen, J. G. (2003), Determination of activation barriers for the diffusion of sodium through CIGS thin-film solar cells. Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl., 11: 543–548. doi: 10.1002/pip.515
- Issue published online: 5 DEC 2003
- Article first published online: 5 DEC 2003
- Manuscript Revised: 14 AUG 2003
- Manuscript Received: 28 DEC 2002
- NREL. Grant Number: ADJ-1-30630-12
- University of Delaware
- solar cell;
We have determined the activation energies of sodium diffusion from the soda-lime glass substrate through the Mo back-contact layer, as well as through copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) deposited on the Mo back-contact layer of CIGS thin-film solar cells. The activation energies were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to measure surface sodium concentrations before and after thermally induced diffusion. The activation energies were found to be similar for the diffusion of Na through the Mo/glass and CIGS/Mo/glass thin films, approximately 8·6 and 9·6 kcal/mol, respectively. Furthermore, the sodium diffusion was found to occur by annealing in an environment of 1·0×10−5 Torr of air, oxygen, or water vapor, but not in vacuum of less than 1×10−8 Torr. In addition, the diffusion of Na was found to occur faster in the presence of oxygen than in water under identical annealing conditions. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.