Electricity generation using photovoltaic (PV) becomes more and more important and significant research is performed in this PV arena. Although the electrical cell connection as well as the encapsulation of the PV active material are of utmost importance, these so-called back-end processes in the production of PV modules are often neglected. Here, we present our currently used activities to encapsulate inorganic PV materials, i.e. crystalline silicon as well as the various thin film technologies and focus on the lamination step. The importance of an exceedingly homogeneous temperature profile during the lamination step is highlighted as well as the application of various pressures in time. The control of both the temperature and pressure profile is key to produce bubble free and long-lasting high quality PV modules. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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