Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications

Cover image for Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications

January 2009

Volume 17, Issue 1

Pages 1–99

  1. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Accelerated Publications
    4. Research Articles
    5. Literature Surveys
    1. Compositional engineering of chemical bath deposited (Zn,Cd)S buffer layers for electrodeposited CuIn(S,Se)2 and coevaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells (pages 1–9)

      N. Naghavi, C. Hubert, A. Etcheberry, V. Bermudez, D. Hariskos, M. Powalla and D. Lincot

      Version of Record online: 1 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.853

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      A comparative study of chemical bath deposition (CBD) of ZnS, CdS and a mixture of (Cd,Zn)S buffer layers has been carried out on electrodeposited CuIn(S,Se)2 (ED-CIS) and coevaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) absorbers. For an optimal bath composition with the ratio of [Zn]/[Cd]=25, efficiencies higher than those obtained with CdS and ZnS recipes both on co-evaporated CIGS and ED-CIS can be obtained, independently of the absorber used.

    2. History of accelerated and qualification testing of terrestrial photovoltaic modules: A literature review (pages 11–33)

      C. R. Osterwald and T. J. McMahon

      Version of Record online: 7 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.861

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      This paper documents the published history in 177 references of more than 30 years of accelerated stress testing of PV modules. An important part of the history has been the development of standardized sequences such as the one outlined in this figure, adapted from International Electrotechnical Commission standard IEC 61215. Contrary to popular beliefs and desires, however, PV modules cannot be assigned a numerical lifetime as a result of passing these test sequences.

    3. Shunting problems due to sub-micron pinholes in evaporated solid-phase crystallised poly-Si thin-film solar cells on glass (pages 35–46)

      O. Kunz, J. Wong, J. Janssens, J. Bauer, O. Breitenstein and A.G. Aberle

      Version of Record online: 21 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.866

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      In this work it is reported that poly-silicon thin-film solar cells on glass, created by solid phase crystallization (SPC) of evaporated amorphous silicon (EVA), get severely shunted when the air-side metal contact is deposited onto these diodes. By means of optical microscope, FIB and lock-in thermography images it is demonstrated that sub-micron pinholes are the cause of this shunting effect. Two different approaches overcoming this problem are outlined.

    4. Enhanced lateral current transport via the front N+ diffused layer of n-type high-efficiency back-junction back-contact silicon solar cells (pages 47–56)

      Filip Granek, Martin Hermle, Dominik M. Huljić, Oliver Schultz-Wittmann and Stefan W. Glunz

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.862

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      Application of the low-cost structuring technologies in the processing of the high-efficiency back-contact back-junction silicon solar cells results in a drastic increase of the pitch on the rear cell side. This leads to a significant increase of the lateral base resistance. The application of a phosphorus doped front n+ layer significantly reduces the lateral base resistance losses. Function of the front diffused n+ layer in reducing the lateral resistance losses was investigated experimentally and by two-dimensional device simulations.

    5. Do built-in fields improve solar cell performance? (pages 57–66)

      Martin A. Green

      Version of Record online: 1 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.851

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      Electric fields can be built into solar cells by varying the doping level and/or the cell bandgap with the benefits long recognised. A counteracting effect is that varying the doping or bandgap from the optimum for a particular material system will result in poorer material quality. New solutions are described to the standard semiconductor transport and recombination equations that allow clear boundaries to be found between when built-in fields are beneficial or deleterious.

    6. Catalytic materials manufactured by the polyol process for monolithic dye-sensitized solar cells (pages 67–73)

      Krzysztof Skupien, Piotr Putyra, Janusz Walter, Ryszard H. Kozłowski, Guram Khelashvili, Andreas Hinsch and Uli Würfel

      Version of Record online: 22 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.854

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      Three types of screen-printable catalytic pastes were successfully prepared to be used as counterelectrode for monolithic dye solar cells encapsulated with glass frit. The electroless bottom-up method or so-called polyol process has been applied to fabricate thermally stable SnO2:Sb/Pt and carbon black/Pt nanocomposites. Moreover, an alternative platinum free conductive counterelectrode material with reasonable electrical and catalytic performance have been introduced for manufacturing low cost monolithic DSCs.

  2. Research: Accelerated Publications

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Accelerated Publications
    4. Research Articles
    5. Literature Surveys
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      Very high efficiency solar cell modules (pages 75–83)

      Allen Barnett, Douglas Kirkpatrick, Christiana Honsberg, Duncan Moore, Mark Wanlass, Keith Emery, Richard Schwartz, Dave Carlson, Stuart Bowden, Dan Aiken, Allen Gray, Sarah Kurtz, Larry Kazmerski, Myles Steiner, Jeffery Gray, Tom Davenport, Roger Buelow, Laszlo Takacs, Narkis Shatz, John Bortz, Omkar Jani, Keith Goossen, Fouad Kiamilev, Alan Doolittle, Ian Ferguson, Blair Unger, Greg Schmidt, Eric Christensen and David Salzman

      Version of Record online: 1 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.852

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      High efficiency modules are being developed based on the co-design of the optics, interconnects and solar cells. The modules are based on a lateral optical concentrating system, which splits the incident solar spectrum into several bands, and allows different optical and photovoltaic elements in each band. An optical efficiency of 93% and solar cell device results summing to 42.7% are described.

  3. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Accelerated Publications
    4. Research Articles
    5. Literature Surveys
    1. Solar cell efficiency tables (version 33) (pages 85–94)

      Martin A. Green, Keith Emery, Yoshihiro Hishikawa and Wilhelm Warta

      Version of Record online: 17 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.880

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      Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined and new entries since July 2008 are reviewed. Efficiencies are updated to the new reference solar spectrum tabulated in IEC 60904-3 Ed. 2 revised in April 2008 and an updated list of recognised test centres is also included.

  4. Literature Surveys

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Accelerated Publications
    4. Research Articles
    5. Literature Surveys
    1. Photovoltaics literature survey (No. 67) (pages 95–99)

      Avi Shalav

      Version of Record online: 17 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.879

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      A single-source reference to the latest solar PV literature, each issue of Progress in Photovoltaics captures the most recently published relevant articles from a wide range of engineering, physics and materials science journals, presented in the following broad categories: 1. Fundamentals, new approaches, and reviews 2. General characterisation techniques and modelling 3. Crystalline silicon-bulk cells and technology 4. Crystalline silicon-thin film cells 5. Amorphous and micro/nano-crystalline silicon, heterojunction cells 6. Organic cells 7. Photoelectrochemical cells 8. CIS, CIGS, CdTe and II-VI cells 9. III-V, quantum well, space, concentrator and thermophotovoltaic cells 10. Terrestrial modules, BOS components, systems and applications 11. Policy, economics, education, health, environment and the solar resource. Photovoltaics literature survey (No. 67).

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