Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications

Cover image for Vol. 19 Issue 2

March 2011

Volume 19, Issue 2

Pages 127–251

  1. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Short Communications
    4. Applications
    5. Broader Perspectives
    6. Literature Surveys
    1. The lamination of (multi)crystalline and thin film based photovoltaic modules (pages 127–133)

      Ronald F. M. Lange, Yun Luo, Roman Polo and Jürg Zahnd

      Version of Record online: 14 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.993

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      The lamination step in the production of photovoltaic modules determines the lifetime of the PV module. The importance of an exceedingly homogeneous temperature profile during the lamination step is highlighted as well as the application of various pressures in time. The control of both the temperature and pressure profile is key to produce bubble free and long-lasting high quality PV modules.

    2. Optimization of anti-reflection moth-eye structures for use in crystalline silicon solar cells (pages 134–140)

      Noboru Yamada, Oanh Ngo Kim, Toru Tokimitsu, Yusuke Nakai and Hideki Masuda

      Version of Record online: 14 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.994

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      Anti-reflection moth-eye structure made of acrylic resin and deposited on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate was optimised in wavelength range from 400 to 1170 nm. Experimental results showed that the reflectance of a fabricated moth-eye structure is less than 1.0% and that a minimal reflectance of 0.55% is observed at 700 nm. A c-Si solar cell module with the fabricated moth-eye film increases electric generation up to 15% (relative to the module without moth-eye), depending on incident angle.

    3. Effects of solar spectrum and module temperature on outdoor performance of photovoltaic modules in round-robin measurements in Japan (pages 141–148)

      Tetsuyuki Ishii, Kenji Otani and Takumi Takashima

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.995

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      The performance of six photovoltaic (PV) modules composed of polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si), amorphous silicon (a-Si), and hydrogenated amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si) modules was investigated at eight locations in Japan from August 2007 to December 2008. We evaluate quantitatively the effects of module temperature and solar spectrum on the module performance. Furthermore, we investigate the variation in module performance, which is converted into module performance under standard test conditions (STC).

    4. Comparative study of ZnO thin films prepared by plasma deposition and electron beam evaporation for use in photovoltaic devices (pages 149–154)

      V. D. Falcão, D. O. Miranda, M. E. L. Sabino, T. D. O. Moura, A. S. A. C Diniz, L. R. Cruz and J. R. T. Branco

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.999

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      Undoped ZnO thin films were grown at room temperature using two techniques: plasma deposition and electron beam evaporation in an argon atmosphere. The optical transmittance of the films deposited by both methods was higher than 80% in the near UV-VIS range; the energy band gap and index of refraction agree with values reported in the literature. The resistivity of films grown by plasma deposition was 3.1 × 10−2Ω.cm, lower than the value of 1.2 × 10−1Ω.cm found for plasma assisted e-beam evaporated films.

    5. Optimal design of electrode grids dimensions for ITO-free organic photovoltaic devices (pages 155–159)

      Ali Cheknane

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1000

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      In this paper we present an optimized model of metallic micro-grid used as anode electrode in organic photovoltaic devices excluding the use of expensive ITO (Indium Tin Oxide). A design of circular grid, adapted for silcon based solar cells, is proposed here. A clear advantage of using the grid as opposed to ITO is the elimination of the absorptive losses the ITO adds to the structure.

    6. Fabrication of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin films by sputtering from a single quaternary chalcogenide target (pages 160–164)

      J. H. Shi, Z. Q. Li, D. W. Zhang, Q. Q. Liu, Z Sun and S. M. Huang

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1001

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      We report deposition of Cu-In-Ga-Se precursors by one-step sputtering of a single quaternary Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) chalcogenide target at room temperature, followed by post selenization using Se pellets. The precursor films exhibit a chalcopyrite structure with a preferential orientation in the (112) direction. A solar cell with an efficiency of 7.95% has been fabricated using the post-selenized CIGS film, and an alternative, large scale and controlled process to fabricate CIGS absorber layers with quite good photovoltaic performance has been demonstrated.

    7. Improvement of multicrystalline silicon solar cells by a low temperature anneal after emitter diffusion (pages 165–169)

      Markus Rinio, Arthit Yodyunyong, Sinje Keipert-Colberg, Yves Patrick Botchak Mouafi, Dietmar Borchert and Amada Montesdeoca-Santana

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1002

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      An annealing step of 500 - 600 °C for about 1 – 2 hours after phosphorus diffusion improves the border areas of multicrystalline silicon solar cells that were deteriorated from the crucible. Light beam induced current topograms indicate that the effect can be explained by phosphorus gettering. An efficiency increase from 14.5 % to 15.4 % by a 2 hour anneal at 500 °C was observed.

    8. Long-term performance degradation of various kinds of photovoltaic modules under moderate climatic conditions (pages 170–179)

      Tetsuyuki Ishii, Takumi Takashima and Kenji Otani

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1005

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      In this study, we show the results of outdoor exposure test in which the performance of 14 PV modules composed of five different kinds made by six different PV manufacturers have been measured since July 2004. The average performance is calculated in each year from 2005 to 2008, and the performance degradation is quantitatively evaluated. The results are that the magnitude of the performance degradation can be clearly classified by the kinds of the PV modules.

    9. Mechanism of charge recombination and IPCE in ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells having I/Imath image and Br/Brmath image redox couple (pages 180–186)

      Seema Rani, Poonam Suri and Ram Mohan Mehra

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1011

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      The effect of intensity and wavelength on the solar cell parameters for two DSSCs having I/Imath image and Br/Brmath image as redox couple has been examined to understand the role of the electrolyte in controlling the solar cell parameters. The charge recombination mechanism between conduction band electrons and bromine was found to be of first order whereas for iodine of second order. An estimation of series resistance is made. Use of I/Imath image has resulted in a lower series resistance and higher IPCE of the cell.

  2. Research: Short Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Short Communications
    4. Applications
    5. Broader Perspectives
    6. Literature Surveys
    1. Influence of defect type on hydrogen passivation efficacy in multicrystalline silicon solar cells (pages 187–191)

      M.I. Bertoni, S. Hudelson, B.K. Newman, D.P. Fenning, H.F.W. Dekkers, E. Cornagliotti, A. Zuschlag, G. Micard, G. Hahn, G. Coletti, B. Lai and T. Buonassisi

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1008

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      Studies on a specially prepared mc-Si solar cell indicate that the recombination activity at some grain boundaries reduces significantly upon hydrogen passivation, whereas at other ones do not. Our detailed analytical investigations demonstrate that defect microstructure plays a dominant role in determining passivation efficacy. The density of countable etch pits along a grain boundary is found to be the principal property governing post-passivation recombination activity, while Fe-rich precipitate decoration was found to play a less significant role.

  3. Applications

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Short Communications
    4. Applications
    5. Broader Perspectives
    6. Literature Surveys
    1. On-site characterisation and energy efficiency of grid-connected PV inverters (pages 192–201)

      J. Muñoz, F. Martínez-Moreno and E. Lorenzo

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.997

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      This paper describes an on-site testing procedure for assessing the power efficiency of an inverter and the results obtained for 13 inverters with nominal powers between 3.3 and 350 kW. The inverters were tested in PV grid-connected systems whose aggregate power capacity is nearly 150 MW. The energy efficiency of the inverters tested was also calculated yearly, and the results were compared with both European and Californian energy efficiency parameters, which are widely used in the current PV market.

    2. UV-nano-imprint lithography technique for the replication of back reflectors for n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells (pages 202–210)

      K. Söderström, J. Escarré, O. Cubero, F.-J. Haug, S. Perregaux and C. Ballif

      Version of Record online: 26 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1003

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      A novel texturing process using nano-imprinting for thin film silicon solar cell substrates is developed. We find excellent yield on a wide range of substrates such as glass or low cost flexible plastics, and the external quantum efficiency (EQE) shows a comparable level of light trapping as conventional texturing processes.

    3. Soiling and other optical losses in solar-tracking PV plants in navarra (pages 211–217)

      Miguel García, Luis Marroyo, Eduardo Lorenzo and Miguel Pérez

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1004

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      Field data of soiling energy losses on PV plants is scarce and, necessarily, site dependent. This study presents a calculation method and field measurements of yearly dirt energy losses and angle of incidence losses on a solartracking PV plant located South of Navarre (Spain).

    4. Power output fluctuations in large scale pv plants: One year observations with one second resolution and a derived analytic model (pages 218–227)

      Javier Marcos, Luis Marroyo, Eduardo Lorenzo, David Alvira and Eloisa Izco

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1016

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      The variable nature of the irradiance can produce significant fluctuations in the power generated by large grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) plants. Experimental 1 second data were collected throughout a year from 6 PV plants, 18MWp in total. Then, the dependence of short (below 10 minutes) power fluctuation on PV plant size has been investigated. The analysis focuses on the study of fluctuation frequency as well as the maximum fluctuation value registered.

  4. Broader Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Short Communications
    4. Applications
    5. Broader Perspectives
    6. Literature Surveys
    1. Comparative life-cycle energy payback analysis of multi-junction a-SiGe and nanocrystalline/a-Si modules (pages 228–239)

      H.C. Kim and V.M. Fthenakis

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.990

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The energy payback time (EPBT) of amorphous amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV designs with nano crystalline silicon (nc-Si) bottom layer has been investigated in a prospective lifecycle analysis framework. Assuming an 8% conversion efficiency, the EPBT of those designs will be 0.7-0.9 years, close to that of currently commercial triple-junction a-Si designs. Expected improvements in the nc-Si film deposition rate and conversion efficiency could lower EPBT by 30%.

    2. Solar based large scale power plants: what is the best option? (pages 240–246)

      Farid Bensebaa

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.998

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      Solar thermal and solar photovoltaic technologies are currently used for large scale power generation. This study compares these two solar options based on field data. Solar photovoltaic gives rise to lower electricity cost, except in geographical areas with extremely high direct solar irradiation. When energy storage is included, this cost differential is reduced. Simplicity during construction and operation, water use and other factors are additional key advantages of solar photovoltaic power generation.

  5. Literature Surveys

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Short Communications
    4. Applications
    5. Broader Perspectives
    6. Literature Surveys
    1. Photovoltaics literature survey (no. 84) (pages 248–251)

      Santosh Shrestha

      Version of Record online: 25 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1100

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