Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications

Cover image for Vol. 19 Issue 3

May 2011

Volume 19, Issue 3

Pages 253–377

  1. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publications
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Literature Survey
    1. Combining laser chemical processing and aerosol jet printing: a laboratory scale feasibility study (pages 253–259)

      Kristine Drew, Sybille Hopman, Matthias Hörteis, Stefan W. Glunz and Filip Granek

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1014

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      First results showing the viability of combining laser chemical processing (LCP) and aerosol jet printing (AJP) technologies to produce a high-efficiency front side for silicon solar cells are presented. LCP simultaneously opens the anti-reflection coating (ARC) and highly dopes the underlying silicon to create a selective emitter, while AJP is the first in a two-step fine-line contact formation procedure. The electrical properties as well as the morphology of the resulting structures are presented.

    2. Photocurrent enhancement in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells with silver nanoparticles (pages 260–265)

      C. Eminian, F.-J. Haug, O. Cubero, X. Niquille and C. Ballif

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1015

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      We have integrated large silver nanoparticles in the back reflector of nip a-Si:H solar cells. These particles lead to an increase of 2 mA/cm2 in short circuit current density compared to co-deposited cells without nanoparticles. The increase in short circuit current density is strongly correlated with the enhanced cell absorption in the long wavelengths.

    3. Photoelectrochemical properties of porous silicon based novel photoelectrodes (pages 266–274)

      C A Betty, R Sasikala, O D Jayakumar, T Sakuntala and A K Tyagi

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1017

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      Porous silicon interfaces have been modified with nitrided TiO2 nanoparticles. Electrodes made of porous silicon impregnated with nitrided TiO2 showed photocurrent increase after exposure to sunlight type radiation. The enhancement in photocurrent was one order more for the porous silicon/titanium oxynitride photoelectrode than that of polished silicon/titanium oxynitride photoelectrode. Photoelectrodes thus prepared were found to have stable performance for a period of six months.

    4. High efficiency screen printed bifacial solar cells on monocrystalline CZ silicon (pages 275–279)

      L. Yang, Q.H. Ye, A. Ebong, W.T. Song, G.J. Zhang, J.X. Wang and Y. Ma

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1018

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      Bifacial solar cells on large area (149 cm2) 2ohm.cm CZ monocrystalline silicon wafers processed with industrially relevant techniques such as liquid source BBr3 and POCl3 open-tube furnace diffusions, PECVD SiNx deposition and screen printed contacts were explored. The resulting solar cells have front and rear efficiencies of 16.6% and 12.8% respectively.

    5. Mechanisms involved in the formation of phosphosilicate glass from a phosphoric acid dopant source (pages 280–285)

      Valantis Vais, Milica Mrcarica, Alejandro F. Braña, Tony Leo and Juan Manuel Fernandez

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1023

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      This study utilised a novel approach to analyse how the formation of the phosphosilicate glass affects the solar cell emitter profile. The approach consisted of samples being extracted from the in line furnace mid process allowing the investigation of incompletely formed phosphosilicate glass films. Extensive characterisation showed that the sheet resistance and emitter surface concentration of phosphorus is dependent on the ratio of phosphide to total phosphorus in the phosphosilicate glass film.

    6. Fundamental losses in solar cells (pages 286–293)

      Louise C. Hirst and Nicholas J. Ekins-Daukes

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1024

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      This paper quantifies intrinsic loss processes that lead to fundamental limits in solar cell efficiency. All intrinsic losses are evaluated using an analytical approach to provide a complete mathematical and graphical description of intrinsic mechanisms, accounting for all incident solar radiation. Intrinsic losses in concentrator cells and spectrum splitting devices are considered and it is shown that dominant intrinsic losses are theoretically avoidable with novel device designs.

    7. The effect of damp-heat and UV aging tests on the optical properties of silicone and EVA encapsulants (pages 294–300)

      Keith R. McIntosh, Nick E. Powell, Ann W. Norris, James N. Cotsell and Barry M. Ketola

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1025

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      The absorption coefficient of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) silicone and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) is monitored during exposure to damp-heat (DH) and UV accelerated aging tests. It is found that moisture introduced by DH exposure scatters incident light, reducing transmission through test samples and complicating optical experiments. It is also found that the absorption coefficient of both PDMS and EVA degrades slightly under DH but is stable under UV.

    8. Numerical analysis of J–V characteristics of a polymer solar cell (pages 301–306)

      Mihai Razvan Mitroi, Vladimir Iancu, Laurentiu Fara and Magdalena Lidia Ciurea

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1026

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      A numerical method to determine the cell parameters from the analysis of the JV characteristics of a polymer solar cell is proposed. This method uses the equations given by the diode model, experimental data from the literature and an adequate fitting procedure with seven fit parameters. Different aspects of the obtained results are discussed. Information concerning cell design optimization is also obtained. The method is of general application in the field of polymer solar cells, as well as to any kind of diode-like cell.

    9. High performance wire-array silicon solar cells (pages 307–312)

      O. Gunawan, K. Wang, B. Fallahazad, Y. Zhang, E. Tutuc and S. Guha

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1027

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      Systematic study of size-dependence of the wire-array solar cell reveals competing effects of reflectivity, series resistance and quantum efficiency that directly impact the cell performance thus become important consideration for device optimization. The wire-array cells were fabricated using microsphere lithography, a viable technique for commercial photovoltaics technology. The study also demonstrates unique capacitance-voltage analysis in these wire-array cells that reveal important information on the junction structure. This analysis is useful to identify conformal junction type which is required for a performance-enhancing wire array solar cell.

    10. Contactless measurement of minority carrier lifetime in silicon ingots and bricks (pages 313–319)

      James S. Swirhun, Ronald A. Sinton, M. Keith Forsyth and Tanaya Mankad

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1029

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      This paper presents results of simulations of minority carrier lifetime measurements in thick silicon samples using the contactless eddy-current technique. Measurements in both QSSPC and transient modes were simulated, resulting in more accurate determination of bulk lifetime in unpassivated block and ingot samples as they may exist in industrial settings.

    11. Role of hydrogen in the surface passivation of crystalline silicon by sputtered aluminum oxide (pages 320–325)

      Tsu-Tsung Andrew Li and Andres Cuevas

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1031

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      While sputtering is capable of depositing aluminum oxide with concentrations of negative charges comparable to some of the other deposition methods, the surface passivation achieved on silicon wafers have not been as good. In this paper, we compare the composition and bonding of aluminum oxide deposited by thermal assisted atomic layer deposition and sputtering, and find that the interfacial silicon oxide layer and hydrogen concentration can explain the differences in surface and hydrogen passivation.

    12. Optimization of interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction solar cells: tailoring hetero-interface band structures while maintaining surface passivation (pages 326–338)

      Meijun Lu, Ujjwal Das, Stuart Bowden, Steven Hegedus and Robert Birkmire

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1032

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      Optimization and design criterion of interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction (IBC-SHJ) solar cells are discussed and guided by two dimensional “Sentaurus device” simulations. The open circuit voltage (VOC) and short circuit current density (JSC) increases with improved Si surface passivation quality, while improvement in fill factor (FF) requires reduced valence band offset (energy barrier) at the hetero-interface. Simulation predicts 26% efficiency is achievable in an optimized IBC-SHJ solar cell on textured wafer.

    13. Anti-reflection and hydrophobic characteristics of M-PDMS based moth-eye nano-patterns on protection glass of photovoltaic systems (pages 339–344)

      Ju-Hyeon Shin, Kang-Soo Han and Heon Lee

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1051

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      Charged capacity of batteries connected to photovoltaic systems was increased when is has with HDFS-SAM coated moth-eye patterns. These results confirmed that the increase in the generated electricity originated from the improved transmittance of the nano-patterned protection glass.

  2. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publications

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publications
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Literature Survey
    1. Improvement in multi-crystalline silicon solar cell efficiency via addition of luminescent material to EVA encapsulation layer (pages 345–351)

      E. Klampaftis and B. S. Richards

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1019

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      The addition of luminescent material in the pre-existing EVA encapsulation layer of commercial screen-printed mc-Si modules increased the module's EQE by a factor of 10–20% relative and the conversion efficiency by 1.2% relative. This method introduces no additional processes or layers to the standard manufacturing process and does not add to the cost of solar electricity.

    2. Compact spectrum splitting photovoltaic module with high efficiency (pages 352–360)

      James D. McCambridge, Myles A. Steiner, Blair L. Unger, Keith A. Emery, Eric L. Christensen, Mark W. Wanlass, Allen L. Gray, Laszlo Takacs, Roger Buelow, Timothy A. McCollum, James W. Ashmead, Greg R. Schmidt, Alex W. Haas, John R. Wilcox, James Van Meter, Jeffery L. Gray, Duncan T. Moore, Allen M. Barnett and Richard J. Schwartz

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1030

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      We demonstrate a small photovoltaic module with 39% conversion efficiency which uses a combination of spectrum splitting, moderate concentration, and two tandem solar cells. In this paper, we describe the modeling, construction, and testing of these devices.

  3. Research: Short Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publications
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Literature Survey
    1. Rear side passivation of PERC-type solar cells by wet oxides grown from purified steam (pages 361–365)

      J. Benick, K. Zimmermann, J. Spiegelman, M. Hermle and S. W. Glunz

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1020

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      To considerably increase the conversion efficiency of industrial solar cells the effective passivation of the rear surface, e.g. by a wet thermal oxide, is a prerequisite. The direct purification of steam is an alternative easy and cost effective way for the introduction of water vapor into the oxidation tube. The passivation quality of wet oxides grown from purified steam will be investigated and compared to “standard” oxides. Additionally PERC-type solar cells passivated by different wet oxides will be presented.

  4. Applications

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publications
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Literature Survey
    1. Screen-printed Emitter-Wrap-Through solar cell with single step side selective emitter with 18.8% efficiency (pages 366–374)

      N. Mingirulli, D. Stüwe, J. Specht, A. Fallisch and D. Biro

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1022

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A screen-printed Emitter-Wrap-Through solar cell reaching designated area efficiencies of up to 18.8% on floatzone material is presented. The cell structure features a gap passivation that is stable against aluminum paste during the fast firing step. Furthermore a novel approach to fabricate a selective emitter structure with a single high temperature step was found to be appropriate for EWT solar cells.

  5. Literature Survey

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publications
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Literature Survey

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