Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications

Cover image for Vol. 19 Issue 4

June 2011

Volume 19, Issue 4

Pages 379–504

  1. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Short communication: Accelerated Publications
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Broader Perspectives
    7. Literature Survey
    1. Dense array connections for photovoltaic systems in concentration (pages 379–390)

      A. Salemi, M. Eccher, A. Miotello and R. S. Brusa

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1040

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      Two new types of connections for photovoltaic cells in dense array are presented. These connections allow to increase the power transfer to the load with respect to array realized with series o parallel connections for the same number of cells. The present connections are of particular interest in concentration photovoltaic (CPV) systems in which the intensity of light incident on each cell of the array can be different causing the cells of the same array working with different current-voltage (IV).

    2. Laser induced defects in laser doped solar cells (pages 391–405)

      Z. Hameiri, T. Puzzer, L. Mai, A. B. Sproul and S. R. Wenham

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1043

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      Laser-induced defects were investigated using a variety of characterisation methods. Focus was given to studying the influence of a dielectric film on defects generated. Based on the results of this investigation, 18.4% efficient laser-doped solar cells were fabricated on commercial grade CZ substrates.

    3. Reflection of normally incident light from silicon solar cells with pyramidal texture (pages 406–416)

      Simeon C. Baker-Finch and Keith R. McIntosh

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1050

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      In this work, we define general expressions for the reflectance and transmittance of various pyramidal textures by identifying discrete paths of reflection and the fraction of reflected light that follows each of these paths – these expressions replace computationally intensive geometric ray tracing, and can be used to optimise antireflection coating thickness. By examining the angles at which light is reflected by the pyramidal textures, we find that an encapsulant of refractive index greater than 1.59 gives between 79 and 92% of the initially reflected light a second chance to enter the solar cell.

    4. Influence of initial power stabilization over crystalline-Si photovoltaic modules maximum power (pages 417–422)

      M.A. Munoz, F. Chenlo and M.C. Alonso-García

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1052

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      During the first days of operation sometimes photovoltaic modules trends to decrease their peak power. This is known as power stabilization and in some cases is due to light soaking. A power conditioning should performed before a measurement of the peak power is taken. According to the results of this paper, this tendency is more clear in monocrystalline modules than in multicrystalline ones.

    5. On the characterisation of PV inverters' efficiency—introduction to the concept of achievable efficiency (pages 423–435)

      B. Bletterie, R. Bründlinger and G. Lauss

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1054

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      The core of this calculation is the multiplication of the distribution of the annual energy input and the distribution of the efficiency, both as a function of the electrical operating conditions. For this, a configuration of the PV array must be assumed (and then varied): the MPP voltage at STC conditions is varied within the allowable range.

    6. Performance enhancement of III–V compound multijunction solar cell incorporating transparent electrode and surface treatment (pages 436–441)

      Chun-Yen Tseng, Choon-Kok Lee and Ching-Ting Lee

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1055

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      To enhance the performance of tandem-type III-V compound multijunction solar cells, the transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film was used to replace conventional metal electrode for increasing the incident light area. For performing ohmic contact between the n-AlInP window layer and the ITO film, a transition layer of Au/AuGeNi thin metals and (NH4)2Sx surface treatment were proposed and investigated. The conversion efficiency of (NH4)2Sx-treated triple-junction solar cell incorporating transparent electrode and improved antireflection structure could be enhanced more than 4.23%.

    7. Performance comparison of AlGaAs, GaAs and InGaP tunnel junctions for concentrated multijunction solar cells (pages 442–452)

      Jeffrey F. Wheeldon, Christopher E. Valdivia, Alexandre W. Walker, Gitanjali Kolhatkar, Abdelatif Jaouad, Artur Turala, Bruno Riel, Denis Masson, Norbert Puetz, Simon Fafard, Richard Arès, Vincent Aimez, Trevor J. Hall and Karin Hinzer

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1056

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      Four tunnel junction designs for multi-junction solar cells under high concentration are studied to determine the peak tunneling current and resistance change as a function of the doping concentration. These four tunnel junctions designs are: AlGaAs/AlGaAs, GaAs/GaAs, AlGaAs/InGaP and AlGaAs/GaAs. Experimental and numerical methods are used to determine the minimum doping concentration required for each tunnel junction design to operate within a multi-junction solar cell at solar concentrations between 1-to 2000-suns.

    8. Life-cycle greenhouse gas effects of introducing nano-crystalline materials in thin-film silicon solar cells (pages 453–463)

      Rob van der Meulen and Erik Alsema

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1058

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      Solar PV is widely considered as a “green” technology. This paper, however, investigates the environmental impact of the production of thin-film silicon modules. We performed a comparative life-cycle assessment of the new micromorph technology versus the current amorphous modules. We conclude that F-gas based clean processing has a substantial environmental impact. Current clean processing practices require micromorph efficiencies to be improved from the current 8–9% (stabilized) toward 12–16% (stabilized) in order to compensate for the increased environmental impacts.

    9. Probing the growth of β-FeSi2 nanoparticles for photovoltaic applications: a combined imaging and spectroscopy study using transmission electron microscopy (pages 464–472)

      A.S.W. Wong, G.W. Ho, S.L. Liew, K.C. Chua and D.Z. Chi

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1060

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      The microstructure of b-FeSi2 nanoparticles grown using magnetron sputtering on Si has been examined using various electron microscopy techniques. FeSi2 nanoparticles as small as 4nm are found embedded in Si after growth using cosputtering of FeSi2 and Si, followed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The formation of nanoparticles and its variation in density with Fe content is discussed in terms of phase separation. Our study shows that the size and density of the nanoparticles as well as the extent of Fe diffusion into sputtered Si and substrate can be controlled by controlling the Fe content in the co-sputtered film.

  2. Research: Short communication: Accelerated Publications

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Short communication: Accelerated Publications
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Broader Perspectives
    7. Literature Survey
    1. Enhanced evanescent mode light trapping in organic solar cells and other low index optoelectronic devices (pages 473–477)

      Martin A. Green

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1038

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      A new light-trapping scheme is described based on tunnelling evanescent waves. The scheme is particularly suitable for low index materials such as organic solar cells and polar inorganic semiconductors such as CdTe, or dielectric layers containing, for example, upconverters. The 4n2 macroscopic limit on light trapping, where n is refractive index, can be exceeded by a large margin using the new scheme.

  3. Research: Short Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Short communication: Accelerated Publications
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Broader Perspectives
    7. Literature Survey
    1. Evaluation of Zn[BOND]Sn[BOND]O buffer layers for CuIn0.5Ga0.5Se2 solar cells (pages 478–481)

      A. Hultqvist, M. Edoff and T. Törndahl

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1039

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      Thin ZnSnO films are evaluated as new buffer layer material for Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based solar cell devices. A maximum conversion efficiency of 13.8% (Voc=691mV, Jsc(QE)=27.9mA/cm2, and FF=71.6%) is reached for a solar cell using the ZnSnO buffer layer which is comparable to the efficiency of 13.5% (Voc=706mV, Jsc(QE)=26.3mA/cm2, and FF=72.9%) for a cell using the standard reference CdS buffer layer. The open circuit voltage (Voc) and the fill factor (FF) are found to increase with increasing tin content until an optimum in both parameters is reached for Sn/(Zn+Sn) values around 0.3–0.4.

    2. Ultrafast near infrared sintering of TiO2 layers on metal substrates for dye-sensitized solar cells (pages 482–486)

      Trystan Watson, Ian Mabbett, Hongxia Wang, Laurence Peter and David Worsley

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1041

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      An enabling technology for rapid manufacturing of dye sensitized solar cells on metals by roll-to-roll production is presented. Near infra red sintering of TiO2 is a process innovation which achieves identical cell efficiencies to a 30min conventional oven heating method in 12.5s. The NIR method is not only ultrafast but can withstand large temperature fluctuations without affecting cell efficiency giving it a wide process window.

  4. Applications

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Short communication: Accelerated Publications
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Broader Perspectives
    7. Literature Survey
    1. Impurity-to-efficiency simulator: predictive simulation of silicon solar cell performance based on iron content and distribution (pages 487–497)

      J. Hofstetter, D. P. Fenning, M. I. Bertoni, J. F. Lelièvre, C. del Cañizo1 and T. Buonassisi

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1062

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      A simulation tool is presented and validated that predicts solar cell efficiency based on iron content and distribution in as-grown wafer and solar cell processing conditions, including time-temperature profile and device-related parameters like surface recombination velocities and resistances. Outputs of this “impurity-to-efficiency” (I2E) simulation tool are post-process iron content and distribution, electron lifetime as a function of wafer depth and solar cell performance parameters, like efficiency, open circuit voltage, and short circuit current.

  5. Broader Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Short communication: Accelerated Publications
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Broader Perspectives
    7. Literature Survey
    1. Learning experience for thin-film solar modules: First Solar, Inc. case study (pages 498–500)

      Martin A. Green

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1057

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      New solar photovoltaic technologies face significant barriers to market entry. First Solar, Inc. is the first thin-film company to succeed in meeting these challenges, with substantial information about the company's evolution available through its public listing. Learning experience in relation to prices, manufacturing costs, module efficiency and material costs are assessed over the 2003–early 2010 period.

  6. Literature Survey

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Short communication: Accelerated Publications
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Broader Perspectives
    7. Literature Survey
    1. Photovoltaics literature survey (no. 86) (pages 501–504)

      Compiled by Santosh Shrestha

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1124

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