Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications

Cover image for Vol. 19 Issue 5

August 2011

Volume 19, Issue 5

Pages 505–630

  1. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publications
    4. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publication
    5. Research: Short communication: Accelerated Publications
    6. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publications
    7. Applications
    8. Broader Perspectives
    9. Literature Survey
    1. From irradiance to output power fluctuations: the PV plant as a low pass filter (pages 505–510)

      Javier Marcos, Luis Marroyo, Eduardo Lorenzo, David Alvira and Eloisa Izco

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1063

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      Power generated by large grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) plants depends greatly on solar irradiance. This paper studies the effects of the solar irradiance variability analyzing experimental 1-second data collected throughout a year at 6 PV plants, totaling 18 MWp. Each PV plant was modeled as a first order filter function based on an analysis in the frequency domain of the irradiance data and the output power signals. This simple model has been successfully validated precisely determining the daily maximum output power fluctuation from incident irradiance measurements.

    2. Advantages of photoplating for laser doped solar cells (pages 511–516)

      Z. Hameiri, L. Mai and S. R. Wenham

      Version of Record online: 12 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1072

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      The influence of different plating methods on shunt and enhanced recombination regions was investigated. It was found that the pseudo fill factors of solar cells plated using photoplating are higher compared to those plated with the electroless method, indicating reduced shunting and/or junction recombination.

    3. A genuine circular contact grid pattern for solar cells (pages 517–526)

      G.M.M.W. Bissels, M.A.H. Asselbergs, J.J. Schermer, E.J. Haverkamp, N.J. Smeenk and E. Vlieg

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1076

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      A model was developed for a genuine circular contact grid. This new grid differs from the radial grid often applied to round solar cells, in that it has a lot less radial lines and many more concentric rings. Applying such a grid to the constituent solar cells in a mechanical stack makes the lower cell(s) relatively insensitive to any rotational misalignment with respect to the higher cell(s), so that it can be the pattern of choice for a mechanical stack.

    4. Re-investigation of preferential orientation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films grown by the three-stage process (pages 527–536)

      F. Couzinié-Devy, N. Barreau and J. Kessler

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1079

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      We have investigated the morphological and crystalline properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films through their growth by the 3-stage process on different Mo/SLG-based substrates. Such a study allows the discrimination between the influence of the process conditions and that of the presence of Na on the preferential orientation of these polycrystalline films. We propose a new interpretation for these experimental results based on the model of recrystallization through grain boundary migration.

  2. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publications

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publications
    4. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publication
    5. Research: Short communication: Accelerated Publications
    6. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publications
    7. Applications
    8. Broader Perspectives
    9. Literature Survey
    1. High efficiency CIGS based solar cells with electrodeposited ZnO:Cl as transparent conducting oxide front contact (pages 537–546)

      Jean Rousset, Edgardo Saucedo, Konrad Herz and Daniel Lincot

      Version of Record online: 10 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1061

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      In this paper high efficiency (up to 15.8 %) CIGS based solar cells terminated with an electrodeposited ZnO:Cl window layer are reported. These results show that the electrodeposition which is a low-cost and non vacuum technique is a reliable alternative to the widely used sputtering method for Transparent Conductive Oxide production.

    2. High efficiency low temperature grown Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells on flexible substrates using NaF precursor layers (pages 547–551)

      Raquel Caballero, Christian A. Kaufmann, Tobias Eisenbarth, Thomas Unold, Reiner Klenk and Hans-Werner Schock

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1064

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      For a total area of 0.95cm2 an efficiency of 15.9% is reported for flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin film solar cells on polyimide foil. This result represents the highest performance for CIGSe solar cells on polyimide foil with evaporation of a NaF precursor layer as Na supply. A maximum nominal process temperature of 420°C is used to deposit the absorber layer. Growth conditions and device characterization are described.

  3. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publication

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publications
    4. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publication
    5. Research: Short communication: Accelerated Publications
    6. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publications
    7. Applications
    8. Broader Perspectives
    9. Literature Survey
    1. Demonstration of a nipi-diode photovoltaic (pages 552–559)

      Cory D. Cress, Stephen J. Polly, Seth M. Hubbard, Ryne P. Raffaelle and Robert J. Walters

      Version of Record online: 2 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1071

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      This paper highlights the simulation, growth, processing, and characterization of a three-period GaAs n-type/intrinsic/p-type/intrinsic....nipi) doping solar cell. Depicted here is a schematic representation and a scanning electron microscope image of the device illustrating how contact is made to the exposed n-type and p-type layers via interdigitated electrodes deposited within etched V-groove openings.

  4. Research: Short communication: Accelerated Publications

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publications
    4. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publication
    5. Research: Short communication: Accelerated Publications
    6. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publications
    7. Applications
    8. Broader Perspectives
    9. Literature Survey
    1. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell grown on flexible polymer substrate with efficiency exceeding 17% (pages 560–564)

      A. Chirilă, P. Bloesch, S. Seyrling, A. Uhl, S. Buecheler, F. Pianezzi, C. Fella, J. Perrenoud, L. Kranz, R. Verma, D. Guettler, S. Nishiwaki, Y.E. Romanyuk, G. Bilger, D. Brémaud and A.N. Tiwari

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1077

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      J-V curve of a 17.1% record efficiency device grown on flexible polymer film a) compared to the previous 14.1% record efficiency device b). Modified CIGS growth conditions resulted in a more optimized Ga grading profile as well as enhanced structural film quality, leading to significant improvement in device performance as compared to the previous 14.1% record efficiency device.

  5. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publications

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publications
    4. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publication
    5. Research: Short communication: Accelerated Publications
    6. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publications
    7. Applications
    8. Broader Perspectives
    9. Literature Survey
    1. Solar cell efficiency tables (Version 38) (pages 565–572)

      Martin A. Green, Keith Emery, Yoshihiro Hishikawa, Wilhelm Warta and Ewan D. Dunlop

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1150

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      Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined and new entries since January, 2011 are reviewed.

  6. Applications

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publications
    4. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publication
    5. Research: Short communication: Accelerated Publications
    6. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publications
    7. Applications
    8. Broader Perspectives
    9. Literature Survey
    1. Uncertainty of the spectral mismatch correction factor in STC measurements on photovoltaic devices (pages 573–579)

      Jochen Hohl-Ebinger and Wilhelm Warta

      Version of Record online: 2 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1059

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      This paper describes a detailed analysis of the spectral mismatch factor and its related uncertainty towards highly precise calibration of photovoltaic devices under standard testing conditions (STC). The inevitable deviations of the spectrum of artificial light sources from the standard spectrum (AM1.5G) have to be taken into account by a spectral mismatch factor. The components of it's uncertainty and their sensitivity on the input quantities are discussed. The sensitivity analysis reveals the crucial wavelength regions and thus allows the systematic optimization of simulator spectra and selection of reference cells.

    2. Reflective secondary optical elements for fresnel lens based concentrator modules (pages 580–590)

      J. Jaus, A.W. Bett, H. Reinecke and E.R. Weber

      Version of Record online: 3 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1065

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      A secondary optics can be used to increase the angular acceptance of a concentrator photovoltaic module. Using a reflective secondary optics, an outdoor module efficiency of 29.1% has been achieved using Ga0.5In0.5P/Ga0.99In0.01A/Ge solar cells and fresnel lenses as primary optics.

    3. Experimental system for current–voltage curve measurement of photovoltaic modules under outdoor conditions (pages 591–602)

      M. Piliougine, J. Carretero, L. Mora-López and M. Sidrach-de-Cardona

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1073

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      A computer-based system to measure the current–voltage curve of photovoltaic modules under outdoor conditions is presented. Modules are biased by a four-quadrant power supply while a function generator synchronizes two multimeters in order to acquire current and voltage simultaneously; this means that the estimated uncertainty is lower than those obtained using other previously proposed methods. The electrical parameters are determined and irradiance and module temperature are registered; all of them with their respective uncertainties.

  7. Broader Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publications
    4. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publication
    5. Research: Short communication: Accelerated Publications
    6. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publications
    7. Applications
    8. Broader Perspectives
    9. Literature Survey
    1. Greenhouse gas emissions associated with photovoltaic electricity from crystalline silicon modules under various energy supply options (pages 603–613)

      N.H. Reich, E.A. Alsema, W.G.J.H.M. van Sark, W.C. Turkenburg and W.C. Sinke

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1066

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      We follow an alternative approach to determine emissions associated with PV electricity, by considering energy supply options in the ‘background’ on an individual basis. This enables PV-emission calculations for any share of energy supply options assumed in the background. In addition, we evaluate the impact of our findings on the potential of solar PV to achieve deep greenhouse gas emission reductions. Obtained results underscore the very large world greenhouse gas emission mitigation realized with increasingly significant PV market shares ahead.

    2. Update of environmental indicators and energy payback time of CdTe PV systems in Europe (pages 614–626)

      Michael Held and Robert Ilg

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1068

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      Rapid development cycles of photovoltaic technologies require frequent updates of LCA studies to ensure the representativeness of the environmental assessment. Our recent study shows that significant improvements in the environmental profile of CdTe PV modules could be reached during the last years. Depending on the regional conditions, the energy payback time of ground mounted power plants decreased to 0.7 and 1.1 years. For the first time this study also accounts for an already applied recycling process of CdTe modules.

  8. Literature Survey

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publications
    4. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publication
    5. Research: Short communication: Accelerated Publications
    6. Research: Short Communication: Accelerated Publications
    7. Applications
    8. Broader Perspectives
    9. Literature Survey
    1. Photovoltaics literature survey (no. 87) (pages 627–630)

      Santosh Shrestha

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1149

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