Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications

Cover image for Vol. 19 Issue 8

December 2011

Volume 19, Issue 8

Pages 911–998

  1. Accelerated Publications

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publications
    3. Research Articles
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Broader Perspectives
    7. Literature Survey
    1. Ag requirements for silicon wafer-based solar cells (pages 911–916)

      Martin A. Green

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1125

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      In 2010, about 2000 t of Ag were used in the contact metallization of silicon wafer-based photovoltaics, consuming approximately 7% of the total annual world Ag supply. With the growth of the photovoltaic industry by 10 times/decade over coming decades not out of the question, Ag supply is clearly an impending material resource issue. Minimum requirements for screen-printed cells are analyzed with the conclusion that design changes will likely be required over the coming decade to reduce use.

    2. Nanoparticle-enhanced light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells (pages 917–926)

      Zi Ouyang, Xiang Zhao, Sergey Varlamov, Yuguo Tao, Johnson Wong and Supriya Pillai

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1135

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      “A systematic investigation of the self-assembled Ag nanoparticle-enhanced light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells is reported.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publications
    3. Research Articles
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Broader Perspectives
    7. Literature Survey
    1. Study of the effect of excess carrier lifetime depth profiles and depth dependent absorption coefficients on the emitted photoluminescence spectrum of chalcopyrite thin films (pages 927–936)

      S. Knabe, M. Langemeyer, F. Heidemann, R. Brüggemann and G. H. Bauer

      Version of Record online: 23 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1094

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      Simulation of the photoluminescence emitted from an excited thin absorber with consideration of an excess carrier lifetime depth profile and a depth dependent absorption. The results were used to characterize the influence of such lifetime depth profiles on the estimation of the quasi Fermi level splitting.

    2. Electron-beam crystallized large grained silicon solar cell on glass substrate (pages 937–945)

      D. Amkreutz, J. Müller, M. Schmidt, T. Hänel and T. F. Schulze

      Version of Record online: 23 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1098

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      Thin film solar cells with poly-silicon absorbers have been prepared on glass using electron beam crystallization. The applied zone melting process produces poly-Si layers with grain sizes up to 1×10mm2 on a-SiC coated substrates. A high electronic quality of the absorber is reflected in open circuit voltages as high as 545 mV, which are realized using the well developed a-Si:H hetero-emitter technology.

    3. Gettering in multicrystalline silicon wafers with screen-printed emitters (pages 946–953)

      T.M. Pletzer, E.F.R. Stegemann, H. Windgassen, S. Suckow, D.L. Bätzner and H. Kurz

      Version of Record online: 23 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1099

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      In this paper, the gettering potential of phosphorus dopant pastes used in single-sided screen-printed processes is investigated including the consequences for essential solar cell parameters. These results are supported by minority carrier lifetime measurements with quasi-steady-state photoconductance method and certified by the analysis of the recombination current density in solar cells on mc-Si wafers.

    4. Evaluation of high-temperature exposure of photovoltaic modules (pages 954–965)

      Sarah Kurtz, Kent Whitfield, G. TamizhMani, Michael Koehl, David Miller, James Joyce, John Wohlgemuth, Nick Bosco, Michael Kempe and Timothy Zgonena

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1103

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      Accelerated testing can estimate whether a PV module design will be durable to the high temperatures experienced in the field. This paper quantifies the thermal environments for modules deployed in multiple cities, mounted on racks or rooftops, and estimates the needed accelerated testing to simulate that exposure quickly in an oven. The figure shows the time at 85°C needed to simulate 1 year in Miami as a function of the activation energy of the aging process.

    5. Low temperature-coefficient for solar cells processed from solar-grade silicon purified by metallurgical route (pages 966–972)

      F. Tanay, S. Dubois, N. Enjalbert and J. Veirman

      Version of Record online: 28 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1104

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      This article shows that the temperature-coefficients of the solar cells processed from Solar-Grade Silicon purified by metallurgical route (SoGM-Si) are much lower than the temperature-coefficients of the cells made from uncompensated Electronic-Grade Silicon. We showed that this unexpected result could be explained via numerical simulations, by taking into account the main particularities of SoGM-Si: dopant compensation, moderate minority carrier diffusion length and larger amount of boron–oxygen complexes.

    6. Inkjet printed metallizations for Cu(In1−xGax)Se2 photovoltaic cells (pages 973–976)

      Peter A. Hersh, Calvin J. Curtis, Maikel F.A.M. van Hest, John J. Kreuder, Robert Pasquarelli, Alex Miedaner and David S. Ginley

      Version of Record online: 28 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1105

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      Using inkjet printed Ag for front contacts on CIGS devices gives conversion efficiencies of 11.4% compared to evaporated contacts with conversion efficiencies of 14.8%. The decrease in efficiency is linked to the heating of the CIGS devices during the inkjet deposition.

  3. Research: Short Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publications
    3. Research Articles
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Broader Perspectives
    7. Literature Survey
    1. Degradation of individual cells in a module measured with differential IV analysis (pages 977–982)

      G.B. Alers, J. Zhou, C. Deline, P. Hacke and S.R. Kurtz

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1013

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      Distribution of shunt resistance in fully packaged modules determined with differential IV analysis and partial shading.

  4. Applications

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publications
    3. Research Articles
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Broader Perspectives
    7. Literature Survey
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      Optimization of SiN AR coating for Si solar cells and modules through quantitative assessment of optical and efficiency loss mechanism (pages 983–990)

      Moon Hee Kang, Kyungsun Ryu, Ajay Upadhyaya and Ajeet Rohatgi

      Version of Record online: 3 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1095

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      Detailed optical properties of various SiN films and their effect on silicon solar cell efficiency in air and under glass is evaluated by a combination of Monte-Carlo geometrical ray tracing program, Sunrays, and a device modeling program PC1D. Maximum module power under glass and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulation is used as the figure of merit for optimizing the index and thickness of the SiN films. Simulations are categorized by surface morphology (planar or textured) and ambient (air or glass).

  5. Broader Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publications
    3. Research Articles
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Broader Perspectives
    7. Literature Survey
    1. You have free access to this content
      Is sour crude or sour gas a potential source of Se and Te? (pages 991–995)

      Martin A. Green

      Version of Record online: 31 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1112

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      Increasing dependence on high sulphur ‘sour’ crude oil plus increasingly stringent requirements on sulphur in fuels has made sour crude and gas the major commercial sources of sulphur. Since other chalcogens, particularly Se and Te, could be concentrated similarly to S, sour crude has been suggested as a possible source for photovoltaics. Prospects are explored with the conclusion that suppressed concentrations of Se in the crudes relative to sulphur and the even lower likely concentrations of Te mitigate against this.

  6. Literature Survey

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publications
    3. Research Articles
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Broader Perspectives
    7. Literature Survey
    1. Photovoltaics literature survey (No. 90) (pages 996–998)

      Santosh Shrestha

      Version of Record online: 27 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1236

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