Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 1

January 2012

Volume 20, Issue 1

Pages 1–126

  1. Accelerated Publications

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publications
    3. Research Articles
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Literature Survey
    1. 19%-efficient and 43 µm-thick crystalline Si solar cell from layer transfer using porous silicon (pages 1–5)

      Jan Hendrik Petermann, Dimitri Zielke, Jan Schmidt, Felix Haase, Enrique Garralaga Rojas and Rolf Brendel

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1129

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      We produce a 43 µm-thick free-standing Si solar cell from the layer transfer process using porous silicon and achieve an independently confirmed record efficiency of 19.1%. This efficiency exceeds the prior state of the art by over 2% absolute and is therefore a milestone in the field of layer transferred cells.

    2. Device characteristics of a 10.1% hydrazine-processed Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 solar cell (pages 6–11)

      D. Aaron R. Barkhouse, Oki Gunawan, Tayfun Gokmen, Teodor K. Todorov and David B. Mitzi

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1160

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      A power conversion efficiency record of 10.1% is reported for kesterite absorbers, using a Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 thin-film solar cell made by a hydrazine-based solution process. Key device characteristics are also compiled, including light/dark J–V, quantum efficiency, temperature dependence of Voc and series resistance, photoluminescence, and capacitance spectroscopy, providing important insight into how the devices compare with high-performance Cu(In,Ga)Se2. Attainment of the 10% efficiency level for the kesterites points to significant technological promise for this class of materials.

    3. Solar cell efficiency tables (version 39) (pages 12–20)

      Martin A. Green, Keith Emery, Yoshihiro Hishikawa, Wilhelm Warta and Ewan D. Dunlop

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2163

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      Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined, and new entries since July 2011 are reviewed.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publications
    3. Research Articles
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Literature Survey
    1. Comparison of emitter saturation current densities determined by injection-dependent lifetime spectroscopy in high and low injection regimes (pages 21–30)

      C. Reichel, F. Granek, J. Benick, O. Schultz-Wittmann and S. W. Glunz

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.942

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      A detailed investigation of the impact of different models for the Auger recombination on the determination of the emitter saturation current density J0e with injection-dependent lifetime spectroscopy in high and low injection regimes is performed. It has been found that a good agreement for the extraction of J0e under high and low injection conditions can be obtained if the Auger parameterization of Kerr et al. is used.

    2. Modeling solar cells with the dopant-diffused layers treated as conductive boundaries (pages 31–43)

      Rolf Brendel

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.954

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      The paper demonstrates how to solve the fully coupled semiconductor transport equations in two dimensions with diffused layers being treated as conductive boundaries that are characterized by their sheet resistances and diode saturation current densities. The model is implemented using COMSOL and is applied to emitter wrap through solar cells.

    3. Durability test of PVP-capped Pt nanoclusters counter electrode for highly efficiency dye-sensitized solar cell (pages 44–50)

      Jo-Lin Lan, Chi-Chao Wan, Tzu-Chien Wei, Wen-Chi Hsu and Ya-Huei Chang

      Version of Record online: 31 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1107

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      In this paper, the durability of PVP-Pt CE for DSSC has been extensively evaluated including electrochemical durability (1000 cycle CV scans), thermal stress durability (60 and 85°C for 1000h) and light soaking durability (1 sun irradiation for 1000h under 60°C).

    4. One-dimensional photogeneration profiles in silicon solar cells with pyramidal texture (pages 51–61)

      Simeon C. Baker-Finch and Keith R. McIntosh

      Version of Record online: 23 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1109

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      We determine one-dimensional photogeneration profiles as a function of the distance to the front surface beneath various pyramidal textures via ray tracing. Certain compatabilities between surface morphology and cell design are quantified when the pyramidal texture drives photogeneration into regions of favourable collection efficiency. Finally, we assess a common one-dimensional model for photogeneration beneath textured surfaces, finding that its deficiencies compromise device simulation when collection efficiency varies strongly across the device.

    5. 17.9% Metal-wrap-through mc-Si cells resulting in module efficiency of 17.0% (pages 62–73)

      M. W. P. E. Lamers, C. Tjengdrawira, M. Koppes, I. J. Bennett, E. E. Bende, T. P. Visser, E. Kossen, B. Brockholz, A. A. Mewe, I. G. Romijn, E. Sauar, L. Carnel, S. Julsrud, T. Naas, P. C. de Jong and A. W. Weeber

      Version of Record online: 23 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1110

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      17.9% cell efficiency on thin and large mc-Si REC wafers using ECN's metal-wrap-through (MWT) concept was obtained by optimizing several cell processing steps. With these cells 36-cell back-contacted modules were manufactured at 100% yield in ECN's industry scale module pilot line. The highest module efficiency obtained was 17%, which was the world record in early 2010.

    6. A simulation study towards a new concept for realization of thin film triple junction solar cells based on group IV elements (pages 74–81)

      C. Feser, J. Lacombe, K. v. Maydell and C. Agert

      Version of Record online: 26 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1114

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      This paper presents a study about the theoretical efficiency of multi-junction solar cells. The optimized band gap combinations, the temperature dependence, and efficiency gain between different cell concepts have been investigated. In the end, a new material concept with a-Si:H/µc-Si/µc-Ge will be introduced as an promising candidate for a high efficiency thin film solar cell.

    7. Interplay between the hot phonon effect and intervalley scattering on the cooling rate of hot carriers in GaAs and InP (pages 82–92)

      Raphael Clady, Murad J. Y. Tayebjee, Pasquale Aliberti, Dirk König, Nicholas John Ekins-Daukes, Gavin J. Conibeer, Timothy W. Schmidt and Martin A. Green

      Version of Record online: 2 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1121

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      The current work is motivated by the development of the hot the carrier solar cell, which relies on slowed carrier cooling after photoexcitation. A detailed time resolved photoluminescence study of InP and GaAs emphasize the influence of the hot phonon effect and Intervalley Scattering on the cooling rate of hot carriers. It has been demonstrated that carrier cooling is significantly reduced by the Hot Phonon Effect and, to a lower extent, by intervalley scattering

  3. Research: Short Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publications
    3. Research Articles
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Literature Survey
    1. Operating regimes for second generation luminescent solar concentrators (pages 93–99)

      Daniel J. Farrell and Megumi Yoshida

      Version of Record online: 28 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1096

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      When they were first introduced, luminescent solar concentrators promised a cost reduction in the generation of solar energy. Here we show that if luminescent concentrators are to become a cost effective concentrator technology, then it must happen by a shift towards new second generation devices. These devices employ either molecular or optical methods to enhance the photon transport within the waveguide. The fundamental operating regimes that we identify provide a performance threshold that must be overcome by future devices if they are to significantly outperform the limits of the traditional technology.

    2. On the testing of large PV arrays (pages 100–105)

      F. Martínez-Moreno, E. Lorenzo, J. Muñoz and R. Moretón

      Version of Record online: 31 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1102

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      This paper reports on the IES-UPM experience from 2006 to 2010 in the field of the characterization of PV arrays of commercial large PV plants installed in Spain within the framework of the profitable economic scenarios associated to feed-in tariff laws. This experience has extended to 200MW and has provided valuable lessons to minimize uncertainty, which plays a key role in quality assurance procedures. The paper deals not only with classic I–V measurements but also with watt-metering-based procedures.

    3. Studies of implanted boron emitters for solar cell applications (pages 106–110)

      B. J. Pawlak, T. Janssens, S. Singh, I. Kuzma-Filipek, J. Robbelein, N. E. Posthuma, J. Poortmans, F. Cristiano and E. M. Bazizi

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1106

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      B implanted emitters (5 keV, 1 × 1014–3 × 1015 at./cm2, anneal at 1000°C for 10 min.) are investigated in the back junction cell configuration and their material properties are tested in double side implanted Si wafers. N-type 8 × 8 cm2 mono-crystalline cells are fabricated. Both fill factor and efficiency increase for high B doses. However at 1015 at./cm2 B dose the Voc drops, which is in agreement with lifetime degradation in the wafer. Defect evolution simulations of Bn.

    4. Enhanced infrared transmission of GZO film by rapid thermal annealing for Si thin film solar cells (pages 111–116)

      Haijun Jia, Takuya Matsui and Michio Kondo

      Version of Record online: 23 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1108

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      After rapid thermal annealing, transmission of GZO films prepared by sputtering at room temperature enhanced significantly and low film resistivity was preserved. Strong improvement in performance of Si thin film solar cells was demonstrated when using the annealed GZO film as substrate.

  4. Applications

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publications
    3. Research Articles
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Literature Survey
    1. One-watt fiber-based power-by-light system for satellite applications (pages 117–123)

      Rafael Peña and Carlos Algora

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1130

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      In this work, a fiber-based optical powering system capable of providing more than 1 W is developed. The prototype was used in order to power a shunt regulator for controlling the activation and deactivation of solar panels in satellites. The work involves the manufacture of a light receiver (a GaAs multiple photovoltaic converter), a power conditioning block, and a regulator and the implementation and characterization of the whole system.

  5. Literature Survey

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publications
    3. Research Articles
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Literature Survey
    1. Photovoltaics literature survey (no. 91) (pages 124–126)

      Santosh Shrestha

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1263

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