Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications

Cover image for Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications

March 2012

Volume 20, Issue 2

Pages 127–252

  1. Accelerated Publications

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publications
    3. Research Articles
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Literature Survey
    1. Analytical treatment of Trivich–Flinn and Shockley–Queisser photovoltaic efficiency limits using polylogarithms (pages 127–134)

      Martin A. Green

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1120

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      Solutions for the Trivich–Flinn and Shockley–Queisser formulations of the limiting efficiency of photovoltaic conversion are derived in terms of polylogarithms. Earlier Trivich–Flinn limits are shown to be zero temperature limits of the Shockley–Queisser approach. The limiting efficiency of an infinite stack of tandem cells was also investigated with an analytically based solution derived, the limit on photovoltaic conversion for a time-symmetric system, which is compared to the time-asymmetric limit.

    2. Antireflection and light trapping of subwavelength surface structures formed by colloidal lithography on thin film solar cells (pages 135–142)

      Ping-Chen Tseng, Min-An Tsai, Peichen Yu and Hao-Chung Kuo

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1123

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      A novel design of a surface nanostructure that suppresses the reflectivity and provides forward diffraction for light trapping is demonstrated. The structure under study comprises periodic nanoislands fabricated using self-assembly polystyrene spheres, which is applicable to large-area fabrication. The simulation result shows that the optimum short-circuit current density with periodic nanoislands achieves 25 mA/cm2 for a 2-μm-thick silicon, which shows a 76.9% enhancement compared to that of bare silicon.

    3. Nanoimprinted Tio2 sol–gel passivating diffraction gratings for solar cell applications (pages 143–148)

      Jérémy Barbé, Andrew Francis Thomson, Er-Chien Wang, Keith McIntosh and Kylie Catchpole

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1131

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      We report the fabrication and characterization of TiO2 sol–gel diffraction gratings on silicon substrates by using nanoimprint lithography. Minority carrier lifetimes of up to 900 µs for imprinted samples under illumination are reported, which Kelvin probe measurements indicate is due to light-generated negative charge in the films. The structures reported here are very promising as light-trapping, passivating coatings for solar cells.

    4. Lateral spectrum splitting concentrator photovoltaics: direct measurement of component and submodule efficiency (pages 149–165)

      Xiaoting Wang, Nick Waite, Paola Murcia, Keith Emery, Myles Steiner, Fouad Kiamilev, Keith Goossen, Christiana Honsberg and Allen Barnett

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1194

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      This paper presents the measurement work on a lateral spectrum splitting concentrator photovoltaics architecture composed of a converging lens, a dichroic mirror, and two tandem solar cells. The work includes the design of a test bed, self-consistent efficiency definitions, and a diagnostic testing procedure, which all together allow quantitative assessments of each component as well as the whole submodule. A record submodule efficiency of 36.7% is verified, and efficiency higher than 40% is projected based on the component efficiency measurements and further analyses.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publications
    3. Research Articles
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Literature Survey
    1. Progress of Thin-Film Silicon Photovoltaic Technologies in SANYO (pages 166–172)

      Y. Aya, W. Shinohara, M. Matsumoto, K. Murata, T. Kunii, M. Nakagawa, A. Terakawa and M. Tanaka

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1111

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      An a-Si:H/µc-Si:H solar panel, which size is Gen. 5.5 (1,100mm×1,400mm) and µc-Si:H deposition rate is 2.4nm/s, with a conversion efficiency of 11.1% (Voc=161.7 V, Isc=1.46 A, FF=72.4%, Pmax=171 W), is obtained. It is also experimentally confirmed that the value is equivalent to 10.0% of stabilized efficiency.

    2. Laser-fired contact optimization in c-Si solar cells (pages 173–180)

      P. Ortega, A. Orpella, I. Martín, M. Colina, G. López, C. Voz, M. I. Sánchez, C. Molpeceres and R. Alcubilla

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1115

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      This work studies the optimization of laser-fired contact (LFC) processing parameters. LFC process has been made through four passivation layers that are typically used in c-Si and mc-Si solar cell fabrication: thermal silicon oxide (SiO2), deposited phosphorus-doped amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiCx:H(n)), aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and silicon nitride (SiNx:H) films. Values for the LFC resistance normalized by the laser spot area in the range of 0.65-3mΩcm2 have been obtained.

    3. Low-temperature flexible Ti/TiO2 photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells with binder-free TiO2 paste (pages 181–190)

      Lu-Yin Lin, Chuan-Pei Lee, Keng-Wei Tsai, Min-Hsin Yeh, Chia-Yuan Chen, R. Vittal, Chun-Guey Wu and Kuo-Chuan Ho

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1116

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      Flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with binder-free TiO2 films annealed at 450, 350, 250 and 120°C show cell efficiencies of 4.33, 4.34, 3.72, and 3.40%, respectively, which are comparable to that of 4.56% obtained by using a paste with binder (450°C); this observation demonstrates the benefits of a binder-free TiO2 paste for the fabrication of energy-fugal DSSCs. Laser-induced photo-voltage transient technique is used to estimate the electron lifetime in various Ti/TiO2 films.

    4. Ultra-low concentration Na2CO3/NaHCO3 solution for texturization of crystalline silicon solar cells (pages 191–196)

      Amada Montesdeoca-Santana, Etaín Jiménez-Rodríguez, Benjamín González-Díaz, Dietmar Borchert and Ricardo Guerrero-Lemus

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1117

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      This work presents a novel ultra-low concentration of carbonate/bicarbonate solution (12 times less concentrated than the lowest values reported in the literature as optimum) suitable for texturing monocrystalline silicon for solar cells. The use of this solution enhances the solar cell parameters with respect to the use of high concentration solutions. Additives as isopropyl alcohol are not needed. This ultra-low concentration can reduce costs and environmental impact in Si-based solar cell production.

    5. Vertical junction Si cells for concentrating photovoltaics (pages 197–208)

      Roni Pozner, Gideon Segev, Rona Sarfaty, Abraham Kribus and Yossi Rosenwaks

      Version of Record online: 19 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1118

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      Vertical Junction (VJ) Si cell have shown potential to operate at high concentration, mainly the result of reduced series resistance losses due to the low current/high voltage design. We perform a comprehensive optimization study and show that the conversion efficiency of VMJ cells can be significantly higher, close to 30% at concentration of 1000 and higher. We also show that increased photoconductivity, which is usually negligible in conventional cells, produces a significant reduction in series resistance at high concentrations making it a significant contributor to the outstanding performance of the VMJ cell at high concentration.

    6. Influence of high growth rates on evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 layers and solar cells (pages 209–216)

      Adrian Chirilă, Sieghard Seyrling, Stephan Buecheler, Dominik Guettler, Shiro Nishiwaki, Yaroslav E. Romanyuk, Gerhard Bilger and Ayodhya N. Tiwari

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1122

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      High growth rates during the 2nd and 3rd stage of a three-stage process have been investigated at low substrate temperature. While the growth rate in the 2nd stage was found to have no or only little influence on film structure and composition, the 3rd stage has been found to have a strong impact on these properties.

    7. Synchrotron-based microprobe investigation of impurities in raw quartz-bearing and carbon-bearing feedstock materials for photovoltaic applications (pages 217–225)

      Sarah Bernardis, Bonna K. Newman, Marisa Di Sabatino, Sirine C. Fakra, Mariana I. Bertoni, David P. Fenning, Rune B. Larsen and Tonio Buonassisi

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1126

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      Using synchrotron based analytical microprobe techniques, we determine micrometer scale elemental composition, spatial distribution, and oxidation state of impurities in quartz and carbon bearing raw feedstock materials used in the photovoltaic industry. In both feedstocks, impurities are predominantly found clustered and in an oxidized form.

    8. Smoothing of PV power fluctuations by geographical dispersion (pages 226–237)

      Javier Marcos, Luis Marroyo, Eduardo Lorenzo and Miguel García

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1127

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      This paper deals with the smoothing of power fluctuations because of geographical dispersion of PV systems. An empirical expression is proposed to compare the fluctuation attenuation because of both the size and the number of PV plants grouped. The convolution has turned out to be a successful tool to describe the behavior of an ensemble of PV plants and determine their maximum output fluctuation. Our work is based on experimental 1-s data from seven PV plants, 20 MWp in total, separated between 6 and 360 km.

    9. Microsecond carrier lifetime measurements in silicon via quasi-steady-state photoluminescence (pages 238–245)

      Johannes A. Giesecke and Wilhelm Warta

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1128

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      The as yet sensitivity-limiting effects of quasi-steady-state photoluminescence lifetime measurements are identified. The corrective measures proposed herein (concerned with filtering of irradiation and with signal delays during detection and amplification) allow reliable carrier lifetime measurements down to one microsecond. Given the negligible impact of trapping and carrier mobility as well as the ability to perform a lifetime calibration of photoluminescence images of wafers and solar cells, this technique is among the most powerful available in silicon photovoltaics today.

  3. Research: Short Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publications
    3. Research Articles
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Literature Survey
    1. Limitations on dynamic excess carrier lifetime calibration methods (pages 246–249)

      Ronald A. Sinton and Thorsten Trupke

      Version of Record online: 19 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1119

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      Many recent papers have utilized the concept of calibrating lifetime measurements, such as photoluminescence imaging, by implicitly comparing steady-state lifetime data to transient data. This paper indicates certain conditions under which this method has significant errors. For example, these errors (indicated as the difference between the steady-state and transient measurements) occur for short wavelength illumination of samples with moderate to high surface recombination velocity. There is not only a wide range of applicability for these methods but also conditions where these methods may not be appropriate.

  4. Literature Survey

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publications
    3. Research Articles
    4. Research: Short Communications
    5. Literature Survey

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