Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 3

May 2012

Volume 20, Issue 3

Pages 253–376

  1. Accelerated Publications

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publications
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Literature Survey
    1. Electronic properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells on stainless steel foils without diffusion barrier (pages 253–259)

      F. Pianezzi, A. Chirilă, P. Blösch, S. Seyrling, S. Buecheler, L. Kranz, C. Fella and A. N. Tiwari

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1247

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      Defect levels were determined from admittance spectroscopy of a Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells processed on flexible stainless steel substrate. The shallow defect is attributed to the N1 defect often observed in CIGS devices, and the deep defect at 320 meV is related to the iron concentration in the CIGS layer. Iron impurities diffused from the substrate into the absorber during the CIGS growth process.

    2. Advanced PERC and PERL production cells with 20.3% record efficiency for standard commercial p-type silicon wafers (pages 260–268)

      Zhenjiao Wang, Peiyu Han, Hongyan Lu, Hongqiang Qian, Liping Chen, Qinglei Meng, Ning Tang, Feng Gao, Yongfei Jiang, Jiaqi Wu, Wenjuan Wu, Haidong Zhu, Jingjia Ji, Zhengrong Shi, Adeline Sugianto, Ly Mai, Brett Hallam and Stuart Wenham

      Version of Record online: 26 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2178

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      In recent years, Suntech Power has successfully commercialised its Pluto technology with 0.5 GW annual production capacity, delivering up to 10% performance advantage over screen-printed cells. As part of the ongoing development of Pluto technology, the next generation of Pluto has demonstrated an average cell efficiency over 20% on a 155 cm2 commercial-grade p-type wafers using mass-manufacturing processes and equipment, with the highest single-cell efficiency independently confirmed at 20.3%. This is believed to be a record efficiency for this wafer type. Further optimization work suggests the potential for further efficiency increase to approaching 23%.

    3. Approach for Al2O3 rear surface passivation of industrial p-type Si PERC above 19% (pages 269–273)

      Bart Vermang, Hans Goverde, Loic Tous, Anne Lorenz, Patrick Choulat, Jorg Horzel, Joachim John, Jef Poortmans and Robert Mertens

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2196

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      Atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 is used to improve the rear surface passivation of large-area screen-printed p-type Si passivated emitter and rear cells (PERC). A blister-free stack of Al2O3/SiOx/SiNx is developed, leading to improved back reflection and a rear recombination current of 92 ± 6 fA/cm2. For Al2O3/SiOx/SiNx-passivated PERC, an average cell efficiency of 19.0 % is reached. Compared with SiOx/SiNx-passivated PERC, there is an obvious gain in VOC and JSC of 5 mV and 0.2 mA/cm2, respectively, thanks to improved rear surface passivation and rear internal reflection.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publications
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Literature Survey
    1. A validated SPICE network simulation study on improving tunnel diodes by introducing lateral conduction layers (pages 274–283)

      Marc Steiner, Wolfgang Guter, Gerhard Peharz, Simon P. Philipps, Frank Dimroth and Andreas W. Bett

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1133

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      A SPICE network model for triple-junction solar cells including tunnel-diode characteristics has been set up and validated by experimental data. The influence of lateral current spreading in layers surrounding the tunnel diodes is examined with this model. Resistance regimes of the lateral conducting layers were identified, which would enable a current spreading high enough to transport all current exclusively by tunnelling. Finally, necessary layer thicknesses using Alx-1GaxAs as lateral conducting layers are calculated for different doping concentrations and mole fractions.

    2. Development of gallium gradients in three-stage Cu(In,Ga)Se2 co-evaporation processes (pages 284–293)

      Sebastian Michael Schleussner, Tobias Törndahl, Margareta Linnarsson, Uwe Zimmermann, Timo Wätjen and Marika Edoff

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1134

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      We evaluate the development of gradients during the three-stage co-evaporation growth of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and offer a model that explains the formation of the “notch” profile as well as the survival of intentionally added gradients. Cu in - and out-diffusion is compensated for by movement of In or Ga, and a lower mobility of Ga causes preferential movement of In. In-Ga interdiffusion that erodes gradients is at its strongest when the film is very Cu-poor.

    3. Additional coating effects on textured ZnO : Al thin films as transparent conducting oxides for thin-film Si solar cells (pages 294–297)

      Taeho Moon, Jin Hyung Jun, Hyun Lee, Wonki Yoon, Soohyun Kim, Byung-Kee Lee, Hong-Cheol Lee, Wooyoung Kim, Seh-Won Ahn, Sungeun Lee and Heon-Min Lee

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1137

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      The efficiency of µc-Si : H solar cells significantly increased by the additional coating on textured ZnO : Al thin films as transparent conducting oxides, and the enhancement mechanism was systematically examined using a variable illumination measurement technique. The slope of the Rsc versus Jsc−1 curve, acquired from the J–V curves with different illumination intensities, indicates i-layer quality. The results clearly confirmed the enhancement of the i-layer quality due to the additional coating.

    4. Operation of series-connected silicon-based photovoltaic modules under partial shading conditions (pages 298–309)

      Anssi Mäki, Seppo Valkealahti and Jari Leppäaho

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1138

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      In this paper, the electrical characteristics of a photovoltaic power generator composed of 18 series-connected silicon-based photovoltaic modules under various partial shading conditions are studied by using a Matlab/Simulink simulation model. The voltage and power characteristics, such as PMPP/Pmax, of the generator have been investigated under various system shading and shading strength conditions. The results can be utilized to develop new MPP tracking algorithms and in designing, for example, building integrated photovoltaic power generators.

    5. Test procedures for maximum power point tracking charge controllers characterization (pages 310–320)

      María Camino-Villacorta, Miguel Angel Egido-Aguilera and Pablo Díaz

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1139

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      The characterization of charge controllers that use maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms is studied in this paper in function of their static and dynamic efficiency under real varying conditions. Results of monitoring along one year of operation are presented within some guidelines for the definition of test procedures for MPPT charge controllers.

    6. Cold isostatic pressing technique for producing highly efficient flexible dye-sensitised solar cells on plastic substrates (pages 321–332)

      Hasitha C. Weerasinghe, Prasad M. Sirimanne, George P. Simon and Yi-Bing Cheng

      Version of Record online: 25 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1140

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      Mechanically robust TiO2 electrodes on polymer substrates were prepared by cold isostatic pressing technique. Devices fabricated on indium tin oxide-coated polythylene naphthalate films by this method yielded high conversion efficiencies of 6.3% and 7.4% for incident light intensities of 100 and 15 mWcm−2, respectively, which are the highest power conversion efficiencies achieved so far for any dye-sensitised solar cell on a polymer substrate using commercially available P-25 TiO2 powder.

    7. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon p–i–n solar cells deposited under well controlled ion bombardment using pulse-shaped substrate biasing (pages 333–342)

      Michael A. Wank, Rene van Swaaij, Richard van de Sanden and Miro Zeman

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1157

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      We applied pulse-shaped biasing (PSB) to the expanding thermal plasma deposition of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers at substrate temperatures of 200C and growth rates of about 1 nm/s. Obtained solar cells show initial conversion efficiency of 7.4%, a record for ETP-CVD based solar cells at such high growth rates.

  3. Short Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publications
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Literature Survey
    1. Light-enhanced surface passivation of TiO2-coated silicon (pages 343–349)

      Andrew F. Thomson and Keith R. McIntosh

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1132

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      Titanium dioxide is shown to afford good passivation to non-diffused silicon surfaces and boron-diffused surfaces after a low-temperature anneal. The assivation most likely owes to the significant levels of negative charge instilled in the films, and passivation is enhanced by illumination–advantageous for solar cells–indicating that a titanium dioxide photoreaction is at least partly responsible for the low surface recombination. We demonstrate a surface recombination velocity of less than 30 cm/s, on a 5 Ocm n-type silicon, and an emitter saturation current density of 90 fA/cm2 on a 200 O/sq boron diffusion.

    2. >16% thin-film epitaxial silicon solar cells on 70-cm2 area with 30-µm active layer, porous silicon back reflector, and Cu-based top-contact metallization (pages 350–355)

      Izabela Kuzma-Filipek, Frederic Dross, Kris Baert, Jose Luis Hernandez, Sukhvinder Singh, Kris Van Nieuwenhuysen and Jef Poortmans

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1146

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      Thin film epitaxial Si cells demonstrate stability and reproducibility with copper-based metallization scheme. Efficiencies of 16.2% for less than 30 µm thick cell (result confirmed by ISE Cal Lab) are achieved for such “wafer equivalent” technology on large area of 70-cm2. Epitaxial cell technologies integrated the knowledge from microelectronics concerning well defined and controllable active layer profile and conventional crystalline bulk technologies for contacting module.

  4. Applications

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publications
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Literature Survey
    1. Third-generation EUCLIDES concentrator results (pages 356–371)

      Marta Vivar, Ignacio Antón, Dolores Pachón and Gabriel Sala

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1136

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      A third generation of the EUCLIDES concentrator has been developed within the IDEOCONTE European project, with main focus on cell encapsulation, reliability of system components and monitoring of field performance across three different test sites. The overall efficiency is 10% because of low-efficiency cells (18%) combined with other optical and electrical losses in the system, and the estimated cost of €4.30/Wp is still too high to be competitive. In conclusion, this technology should reduce its cost or increase the total system efficiency.

  5. Literature Survey

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publications
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Literature Survey
    1. Photovoltaics literature survey (No. 93) (pages 372–376)

      Santosh Shrestha

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2213

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