Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 4

June 2012

Volume 20, Issue 4

Pages 377–504

  1. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Short Communications
    4. Applications
    5. Literature Survey
    1. Recent progress and future aspects of organic solar cells (pages 377–415)

      Pankaj Kumar and Suresh Chand

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1141

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      This article aims to review the recent progress and future aspects of organic solar cells (OSCs). This review throws light on various issues related to OSCs from physics to materials and then finally entering into the society. Polymer solar cells are futuristic technology and growing very fast. Development in R2R processing would allow transferring the laboratory polymer solar cells to largescale industrial production.

    2. An alternative method for spectral response measurements of large-area thin-film photovoltaic modules (pages 416–422)

      Mauro Pravettoni, Anika Komlan, Roberto Galleano, Harald Müllejans and Ewan D. Dunlop

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1144

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      A new method for the spectral response measurement of large-area single and multi-junction thin-film photovoltaic modules is presented, making use of a chopped monochromatic beam produced from a continuous source with band pass filters, a beam projector and lock-in technique. The results of preliminary measurements are compared with those from other methods, providing a validation of the proposed experimental setup.

    3. Concentration photovoltaic optical system irradiance distribution measurements and its effect on multi-junction solar cells (pages 423–430)

      Rebeca Herrero, Marta Victoria, César Domínguez, Stephen Askins, Ignacio Antón and Gabriel Sala

      Version of Record online: 29 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1145

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      This paper proposes an indoor procedure based on charge-coupled device camera measurements to characterize the non-uniform light patterns produced by optical systems used in concentration photovoltaic (CPV) systems. These irradiance patterns are reproduced on CPV solar cells for their characterization at concentrated irradiances by using a concentrator cell tester and placing high-resolution masks over the cells. Measured losses based on the masks method are compared with losses in concentrator optical systems measured by using the Helios 3198 solar simulator for CPV modules.

    4. Initial theoretical study of solar cells with an intermediate band of non-zero width and a thermalized electron population (pages 431–441)

      Rune Strandberg and Turid Worren Reenaas

      Version of Record online: 29 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1155

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      In this work an attempt is made to analyse the impact of the thermalised IB-electron population on the efficiency of intermediate band solar cells.

    5. Rigorous optical modeling and optimization of thin-film photovoltaic cells with textured transparent conductive oxides (pages 442–451)

      Mukul Agrawal and Michel Frei

      Version of Record online: 28 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1158

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      A practical approach for rigorous and predictive modeling of optical properties of thin-film PV cells incorporating a vast variety of light-trapping structures including semi-coherent textured films and patterned coherent structures is presented. In contrast to the existing semi-empirical device models, it is demonstrated that the presented methodology can accurately predict the scattering properties of textured fluorine-doped tin oxide and aluminum-doped zinc oxide conductive transparent films as well as single and double junction tandem devices grown on these films.

    6. Impact of localized regions with very high series resistances on cell performance (pages 452–462)

      Adeline Sugianto, Otwin Breitenstein, Budi S. Tjahjono, Alison Lennon, Ly Mai and Stuart R. Wenham

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1163

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      The J–V curves recorded under illumination for solar cells having a high series resistance can appear shunted, when a fraction of the cell area is affected by very high series resistance values. This “apparent shunting” behaviour was observed in n-type rear-junction, laser-doped cells with light-induced plated front contacts. A solar cell model with localized high series resistances was developed to further study this “apparent shunting” behaviour with respect to its impact on cell performance.

    7. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for photovoltaic silicon wafer analysis (pages 463–471)

      S. Darwiche, M. Benmansour, N. Eliezer and D. Morvan

      Version of Record online: 9 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1209

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      Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is used for multi-elemental analysis of silicon. The method was optimized as regards environmental parameters such as the composition of buffering gas and was used for measurement of several different impurities including boron, for which a detection limit of 0.2 ppmw was found by constructing a calibration curve in the range of 1 to 100 ppmw. Silicon samples from different production techniques (4C and directional solidification) were analyzed as a function of the length of the silicon.

  2. Short Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Short Communications
    4. Applications
    5. Literature Survey
    1. Radiative efficiency of state-of-the-art photovoltaic cells (pages 472–476)

      Martin A. Green

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1147

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      Maximum possible photovoltaic performance is reached when solar cells are 100% radiatively efficient, with different photovoltaic technologies at different stages in their evolution towards this ideal. An external radiative efficiency is defined, which can be unambiguously determined from standard cell efficiency measurements. Comparisons between state-of-the-art devices from the representative cell technologies produce some interesting conclusions.

  3. Applications

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Short Communications
    4. Applications
    5. Literature Survey
    1. Co-optimization of emitter profile and metal grid of selective emitter silicon solar cells (pages 477–485)

      Zhenli Wen, Chunlan Zhou and Wenjing Wang

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1142

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      Emitter optimization is carried out for a crystalline silicon solar cell with a pyramid textured surface, laser doping SE, metallization by plating, silicon nitride passivated emitter and aluminum back surface field. The contour peak in the region of high surface dopant concentration and shallow junction depth is preferred because of better doping uniformity in process compared with a lightly doped and shallow emitter. It is proposed that the optimal emitter has a surface doping concentration of 3 × 1019 /cm3 to 1 × 1020 /cm3 and a junction depth of 0.2 µm to 0.4 µm.

    2. Electron reflector to enhance photovoltaic efficiency: application to thin-film CdTe solar cells (pages 486–489)

      Kuo-Jui Hsiao and James R. Sites

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1143

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      Efficiency of CdTe solar cells above 19% should be achievable with a 0.2-eV electron reflector and currently achievable parameters. Moreover, efficiency above 20% should be possible at a 1-µm absorber layer if large optical back reflection can also be achieved.

    3. Analysis of industrial c-Si solar cell's front metallization by advanced numerical simulation (pages 490–500)

      Yang Yang, Pietro P. Altermatt, Weihua Zhu, Xueqin Liang and Hui Shen

      Version of Record online: 21 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1148

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      If the fingers cannot be made as narrow as 60 µm in industrial mass production, the economic gains from higher aspect ratios may be rather limited, because there is a trade-off between improved cell efficiency and the increasing cost of silver.

  4. Literature Survey

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Short Communications
    4. Applications
    5. Literature Survey
    1. Photovoltaics literature survey (No. 94) (pages 501–504)

      Santosh Shrestha

      Version of Record online: 17 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2245

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