Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 6

Special Issue: 26th EU PVSEC, Hamburg, Germany 2011

September 2012

Volume 20, Issue 6

Pages 619–835

  1. Paper Presented at 26th EU PVSEC, Hamburg, Germany 2011

    1. Top of page
    2. Paper Presented at 26th EU PVSEC, Hamburg, Germany 2011
    3. Literature Survey
    4. Erratum
    1. On the role of non-doped ZnO in CIGSe solar cells (pages 619–624)

      R. Scheer, L. Messmann-Vera, R. Klenk and H.-W. Schock

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1185

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The i-ZnO layer in a Cu(In,Ga)Se2 cell is used in production. In this work, the needfulness of this layer is investigated. It reduces shunt impact and reverses bias current, and it slightly improves the solar cell parameters.

    2. Investigation of the Sub-Bandgap Photoresponse in CuGaS2 : Fe for Intermediate Band Solar Cells (pages 625–629)

      Björn Marsen, Sascha Klemz, Thomas Unold and Hans-Werner Schock

      Version of Record online: 9 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1197

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      Optical absorption coefficients and solar cell results are reported for CuGa1-xFexS2 films grown by vacuum coevaporation and related photovoltaic devices in glass/Mo/ CuGa1-xFexS2 /CdS/ZnO structure, respectively. With increasing Fe content, optical absorption features at 1.2 eV and 1.9 eV increase in prominence, whereas solar cell parameters deteriorate. For the lowest iron content (x=0.003) an increase in photoresponse below the bandgap of CuGaS2 is observed, attributed to a combination of sufficient absorption and carrier collection at this dilution level.

    3. Towards 20% efficient large-area screen-printed rear-passivated silicon solar cells (pages 630–638)

      Thorsten Dullweber, Sebastian Gatz, Helge Hannebauer, Tom Falcon, Rene Hesse, Jan Schmidt and Rolf Brendel

      Version of Record online: 10 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1198

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      This paper provides processing details of large-area screen-printed rear-passivated silicon solar cells with conversion efficiencies up to 19.4%. We investigate two different rear dielectric layer stacks, Al2O3/SiNx and SiO2/SiNx, in combination with a print-on-print Ag front side metallization. The extensive solar cell characterization shows an excellent rear surface passivation and optical rear reflectance and reveals further improvement potential of the conversion efficiency towards 20%.

    4. The potential of photovoltaic carports to cover the energy demand of road passenger transport (pages 639–649)

      Hans-Martin Neumann, Daniel Schär and Franz Baumgartner

      Version of Record online: 3 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1199

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      In this article, the potential of parking lots for the photovoltaic generation of solar electricity is examined. The study is based on simulations that were carried out for 48 parking lots in Frauenfeld, a typical Swiss medium-sized city. Covered with solar carports, these parking lots would cover 15–40% of the energy demand by the city's road passenger transport.

    5. A validation study of photovoltaic module series resistance determination under various operating conditions according to IEC 60891 (pages 650–660)

      Davide Polverini, Georgios Tzamalis and Harald Müllejans

      Version of Record online: 28 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1200

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The IEC60891 edition 2 (2009) normative standard provides an iterative calculation procedure for determining the series resistance Rs of a photovoltaic module on the basis of I-V curves measured at different irradiances. We present a quantitative investigation of the impact of the standard's calculation parameters on the overall precision of the Rs calculation. We also appraise the effect of the calculation precision on the evaluation of the module performance as well as the Rs dependence on irradiance and temperature for various photovoltaic technologies.

    6. Polarisation analysis of luminescence for the characterisation of defects in silicon wafer solar cells (pages 661–669)

      Matthew P. Peloso, Jen Sern Lew, Pooja Chaturvedi, Bram Hoex and Armin G. Aberle

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1201

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Polarisation analysis of electroluminescence reveals strongly polarised light emitted by dislocations in multicrystalline silicon wafer solar cells. The polarisation is observed to correspond with the orientation of the dislocations. Polarisation analysis of luminescence may thus be used to further understand and characterise extended defects in silicon wafer solar cells.

    7. Advanced alignment technique for precise printing over selective emitter in c-Si solar cells (pages 670–680)

      Alessandro Voltan, Marco Galiazzo, Diego Tonini, Alessandro Casarin, Giorgio Cellere and Andrea Baccini

      Version of Record online: 5 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1203

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      New equipment for precise alignment over SE able to guarantee recognition of every SE pattern and consequent printing repeatability within +/-30 µm without rejections or misalignments has been developed (examples of SE patterns are reported in the following pictures). Test performed at production sites confirm that an efficiency gain of 0.1% and a significant reduction of rejection can result from the increased robustness of the presented method. Finally, also, a correlation between sheet resistance of heavily doped area and image contrast has been demonstrated.

    8. Is the distribution grid ready to accept large-scale photovoltaic deployment? State of the art, progress, and future prospects (pages 681–697)

      Martin Braun, Thomas Stetz, Roland Bründlinger, Christoph Mayr, Kazuhiko Ogimoto, Hiroyuki Hatta, Hiromu Kobayashi, Ben Kroposki, Barry Mather, Michael Coddington, Kevin Lynn, Giorgio Graditi, Achim Woyte and Iain MacGill

      Version of Record online: 10 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1204

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      The installed capacity of photovoltaic (PV) systems has recently increased at a much faster rate than the development of grid codes. This paper provides a review of current grid codes in some countries with high PV penetrations. In addition, the paper presents a number of country-specific case studies on different approaches for improved integration of PV systems in the distribution grid. In particular, we consider integration approaches by using active and reactive power control that can reduce or defer expensive grid reinforcement.

    9. Worldwide first fully up-scaled fabrication of 60 × 100 cm2 dye solar module prototypes (pages 698–710)

      Andreas Hinsch, Welmoed Veurman, Henning Brandt, Ramiro Loayza Aguirre, Katarzyna Bialecka and Katrine Flarup Jensen

      Version of Record online: 28 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1213

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      First time worldwide, large-scale (6000 cm2) dye solar modules were developed using a meander and integrated series connected design with glass frit sealing. The manufacturing process is based entirely on screen printing and does not require the interconnection of sub-modules. An analysis of the present module performance and critical issues for quality control related to stability are presented, along with an overview of the advantages of this module concept in terms of cost effective up-scaling and transfer to industrial production.

    10. The history and future of incentives and the photovoltaic industry and how demand is driven (pages 711–716)

      Paula Mints

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1214

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This figure shows the trend in average photovoltaic technology prices during a period of significantly high demand growth. Growth in demand during this period was driven by the feed-in tariff incentive model. During this 5-year period, average module prices fell by a compound annual 8%, with demand growing by a compound annual rate of 65%, into gigawatt level. This paper analyzes the industry shift from high incentives to a period of low to no incentives.

    11. Performance ratio revisited: is PR > 90% realistic? (pages 717–726)

      Nils H. Reich, Bjoern Mueller, Alfons Armbruster, Wilfried G. J. H. M. van Sark, Klaus Kiefer and Christian Reise

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1219

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The performance ratio (PR) of about 100 German photovoltaic system installations is reviewed. Loss mechanisms of the top 10 performing German systems monitored in 2010 are analyzed by means of simulation. Based on silicon sensor readings of on-site irradiation, PRSi values above 90% are found to be realistic even today, using today's commercially available components, and should be expected more frequently in the future.

    12. Improvement of the open circuit voltage by modifying the transparent indium–tin oxide front electrode in amorphous n–i–p solar cells (pages 727–734)

      Franz-Josef Haug, Remi Biron, Gilles Kratzer, Frank Leresche, Jonathan Besuchet, Christophe Ballif, Marcel Dissel, Sebastian Kretschmer, Wim Soppe, Paul Lippens and Klaus Leitner

      Version of Record online: 10 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1220

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Transparent front electrodes with high work function are desirable for high-efficiency solar cells and many other applications. We find that higher work function, for example, obtainable by higher oxygen content during sputtering of indium-tin oxide translates directly to improved open circuit voltage in amorphous n–i–p type solar cells.

    13. Improved multicrystalline silicon ingot crystal quality through seed growth for high efficiency solar cells (pages 735–746)

      Anis Jouini, Damien Ponthenier, Hélène Lignier, Nicolas Enjalbert, Benoit Marie, Béatrice Drevet, Etienne Pihan, Cyril Cayron, Tamzin Lafford and Denis Camel

      Version of Record online: 30 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1221

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      Work on silicon crystal quality improvement and defect control has been carried out on lab-scale seeded growth ingots allowing wafers with controlled grain orientations. Both <111> and <100> monocrystalline-like ingots were produced using a combination of quartz rod dipping and a modulated conductive heat extraction system, made in-house, in a directional solidification system. Two mono-like wafer morphology types have been produced. Their structural and electrical properties are presented in detail.

    14. Development of innovative voltage control for distribution networks with high photovoltaic penetration (pages 747–759)

      B. Bletterie, A. Goršek, T. Fawzy, D. Premm, W. Deprez, F. Truyens, A. Woyte, B. Blazič and B. Uljanič

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1222

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Detailed inverter models including, for example, voltage and frequency control and protections have been implemented as static generators in the simulation environment. The detailed P-Q diagrams reflecting the inverter capabilities are implemented. Each generator model is fed with an external 15-minute profile for active power.

    15. Local and regional photovoltaic power prediction for large scale grid integration: Assessment of a new algorithm for snow detection (pages 760–769)

      Elke Lorenz, Detlev Heinemann and Christian Kurz

      Version of Record online: 13 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1224

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      Large-scale grid integration of photovoltaic (PV) power requires forecast information on the expected PV power for all levels of electricity supply systems. We present and evaluate a new algorithm of snow detection, which is part of the PV power prediction system of the University of Oldenburg and Meteocontrol GmbH, providing local and regional PV power predictions with hourly resolution for several days ahead. For the investigated winter, forecast errors could be reduced to half by applying the new approach.

    16. Crystalline thin-foil silicon solar cells: where crystalline quality meets thin-film processing (pages 770–784)

      Frederic Dross, Kris Baert, Twan Bearda, Jan Deckers, Valerie Depauw, Ounsi El Daif, Ivan Gordon, Adel Gougam, Jonathan Govaerts, Stefano Granata, Riet Labie, Xavier Loozen, Roberto Martini, Alex Masolin, Barry O'Sullivan, Yu Qiu, Jan Vaes, Dries Van Gestel, Jan Van Hoeymissen, Anja Vanleenhove, Kris Van Nieuwenhuysen, Srisaran Venkatachalam, Marc Meuris and Jef Poortmans

      Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1238

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Crystalline Si technology is dominating the photovoltaics market. These modules are nonetheless still relatively expensive. Thin-film technologies, on the other hand, exhibit a much lower production cost per unit area, but achieve an efficiency still limited on module level, which increases the total system costs. A meet-in-the-middle is possible: crystalline Si thin-film modules. First, we present the fabrication of the active material, and then we describe the processing of the Si foils into solar cells, directly on module level.

    17. Solar energy support in the Asia–Pacific region (pages 785–800)

      Sophie Avril, Christine Mansilla and Thibault Lemaire

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1248

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      This paper aims to review public support for photovoltaic energy by focusing on the policies of three developed Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, Japan and Korea.

      The efficiency of these different policies is assessed by comparing the public investment with the installed capacities.

      The conclusion is that a well-planned policy limiting unwanted side effects should be preferred. Even if expensive in the short term, innovative technologies are beneficial in the longer term, and thus research and development subsidies should be maintained.

    18. Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency (pages 801–815)

      R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X.-Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law and N. H. Karam

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1255

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      We look at a progression of multijunction terrestrial concentrator solar cell architectures leading to 50% efficiency, discussing theoretical, materials science, manufacturing, and energy production considerations. The impact of 40% and 50% cell efficiency on cost-effective geographic regions for concentrator photovoltaic systems is calculated in the US and Europe. Experimental results are shown for an upright metamorphic 3-junction GaInP/GaInAs/Ge solar cell with 41.6% efficiency, the highest demonstrated for a cell of this type requiring a single metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy growth run.

    19. Implications for CdTe and CIGS technologies production costs of indium and tellurium scarcity (pages 816–831)

      Chiara Candelise, Mark Winskel and Robert Gross

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2216

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This paper looks at indium and tellurium availability and implications for CIGS and CdTe production costs. Indium and tellurium scarcity could result in escalation of their prices, which could threaten CdTe and CIGS ambitions to reach and maintain low production costs, and weaken their competitiveness in the photovoltaics market. Impact of active material price increase could be eased by further technological progress, i.e. by improving material utilisation during the deposition process, by achieving lower thickness in the active material layer and by increasing module efficiency.

  2. Literature Survey

    1. Top of page
    2. Paper Presented at 26th EU PVSEC, Hamburg, Germany 2011
    3. Literature Survey
    4. Erratum
    1. Photovoltaics literature survey (No. 96) (pages 832–834)

      Santosh Shrestha

      Version of Record online: 24 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2277

  3. Erratum

    1. Top of page
    2. Paper Presented at 26th EU PVSEC, Hamburg, Germany 2011
    3. Literature Survey
    4. Erratum
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