Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 7

November 2012

Volume 20, Issue 7

Pages 837–914

  1. Accelerated Publications

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publications
    3. Research Articles
    4. Literature Survey
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Enhanced light trapping in solar cells using snow globe coating (pages 837–842)

      Angelika Basch, Fiona Beck, Thomas Söderström, Sergey Varlamov and Kylie R. Catchpole

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2240

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      A novel method, snow globe coating, is found to show significant enhancement of the short circuit current JSC (35%) when applied as a scattering back reflector for polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells. The coating is formed from high refractive index titania particles without containing binder and gives close to 100% reflectance for wavelengths above 400 nm. Snow globe coating is a physicochemical coating method executable in pH neutral media, which make this method applicable to many different types of solar cells.

    2. Wide bandgap Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with improved energy conversion efficiency (pages 843–850)

      Miguel A. Contreras, Lorelle M. Mansfield, Brian Egaas, Jian Li, Manuel Romero, Rommel Noufi, Eveline Rudiger-Voigt and Wolfgang Mannstadt

      Article first published online: 21 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2244

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      We report on improvements to the energy conversion efficiency of wide bandgap CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (Eg > 1.2 eV) solar cells. The current density-voltage data we present includes efficiencies >18% for absorber bandgaps of ∼1.30 eV and efficiencies of ∼16% for bandgaps up to ∼1.45 eV. We establish gains in the open-circuit voltage and, to a lesser degree, the fill factor value, as the reason for the improved performance.

    3. World-record Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin-film sub-module with 17.4% efficiency (pages 851–854)

      Erik Wallin, Ulf Malm, Tobias Jarmar, Olle Lundberg, Marika Edoff and Lars Stolt

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2246

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      In this article, a new, independently confirmed, world-record efficiency for thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based photovoltaic sub-modules of 17.4% (aperture area efficiency) is reported. The record device is the result of extensive co-optimization of all thin-film deposition processes, where a strong focus has been put on the scalability of the processes to cost-effective mass production of full-size modules. Device manufacturing as well as results of electrical and material characterization is discussed.

    4. ILGAR In2S3 buffer layers for Cd-free Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 solar cells with certified efficiencies above 16% (pages 855–861)

      Rodrigo Sáez-Araoz, Johanna Krammer, Susanna Harndt, Tristan Koehler, Martin Krueger, Paul Pistor, Axel Jasenek, Frank Hergert, Martha Ch. Lux-Steiner and Christian-Herbert Fischer

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2268

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      New record efficiencies (independently confirmed by ISE) above 16% for chalcopyrite-based thin-film devices are presented using commercially available Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 absorbers with In2S3 buffer layers deposited by spray ion layer gas reaction (ILGAR) provided by BOSCH Solar CISTech GmbH. The route followed to optimize the buffer layer and a statistical study comparing In2S3 with CdS references are shown. ILGAR In2S3 is an advantageous replacement for the standard CdS buffer layers.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publications
    3. Research Articles
    4. Literature Survey
    1. Diffractive gratings for crystalline silicon solar cells—optimum parameters and loss mechanisms (pages 862–873)

      Marius Peters, Marc Rüdiger, Hubert Hauser, Martin Hermle and Benedikt Bläsi

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1151

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      We present a detailed theoretical optimization and investigation of loss mechanisms for diffractive gratings for crystalline silicon solar cells. We show that gratings have a considerable potential to increase the absorption in the solar cell. For an exemplary system an increase in short circuit current density of 1.8mA/cm2 corresponding to an increase in efficiency of 1% absolute is obtained.

    2. Use of support vector regression and numerically predicted cloudiness to forecast power output of a photovoltaic power plant in Kitakyushu, Japan (pages 874–882)

      Joao Gari da Silva Fonseca Jr., Takashi Oozeki, Takumi Takashima, Gentarou Koshimizu, Yoshihisa Uchida and Kazuhiko Ogimoto

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1152

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      The study showed that the use of support vector regression to forecast the power produced by a photovoltaic power plant in Kitakyushu yields forecasts with a good level of accuracy. Moreover, when numerically predicted, cloudiness is used as input of the support vector regression method, the mean absolute error of the forecasts decreased more than 42% as showed in Figure 4.

    3. Growth kinetics, properties, performance, and stability of atomic layer deposition Zn–Sn–O buffer layers for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells (pages 883–891)

      Adam Hultqvist, Charlotte Platzer-Björkman, Uwe Zimmermann, Marika Edoff and Tobias Törndahl

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1153

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      A new atomic layer deposition process is developed for Zn-Sn-O buffer layers for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells. The resulting Zn-Sn-O thin films are amorphous and have a high resistivity. Good solar cell performance is achieved for [Sn]/([Sn]+[Zn]) ratios of 0.15–0.21 with a champion solar cell efficiency of 15.3 % compared to 15.1 % of the best CdS reference. Good stability is shown for the solar cell performance even after 1000h of dry heat storage in darkness.

    4. Focussed ion beam and field emission gun–scanning electron microscopy for the investigation of voiding and interface phenomena in thin-film solar cells (pages 892–898)

      Jonathan D. Major, Leon Bowen and Ken Durose

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1164

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      Analysis of thin film interfaces and growth phenomena such as voiding in complete CdTe thin film solar cells using combined focussed ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy.

    5. Effect of Se flux on CuIn1-xGaxSe2 film in reactive sputtering process (pages 899–903)

      Nae-Man Park, Ho Sub Lee, Dae-Hyung Cho, Yong-Duck Chung, Kyung-Hyun Kim, Kyu-Seok Lee and Jeha Kim

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1202

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      A solar cell with a 900-nm CIGS film absorber fabricated via reactive on-step sputtering process with Cu0·6Ga0·4 and Cu0·4In0·6 metallic targets shows the power conversion efficiency of 8·6%.

    6. Design of conduction band structure of TiO2 electrode using Nb doping for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (pages 904–911)

      Nikolay A. Tsvetkov, Liudmila L. Larina, Oleg Shevaleevskiy, Essam A. Al-Ammar and Byung Tae Ahn

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2253

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      The Nb doping of TiO2 electrode leads to an alteration of its electronic structure and in turn substantially increases the photoelectron injection and collection efficiencies along with enhancement of the recombination at the TiO2/dye–electrolyte interface. The unfavorable recombination was successfully suppressed by the covering of the Nb-doped electrode with a barrier layer of undoped TiO2.

  3. Literature Survey

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publications
    3. Research Articles
    4. Literature Survey
    1. Photovoltaics literature survey (No. 97) (pages 912–914)

      Santosh Shrestha

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2311