Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications

Cover image for Vol. 21 Issue 2

March 2013

Volume 21, Issue 2

Pages 141–266

  1. Accelerated Publication

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publication
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communication
    5. Applications
    6. Broader Perspectives
    7. Literature Survey
    1. Optimization of ultraviolet laser doping for crystalline silicon solar cells with a novel segmented selective emitter design (pages 141–147)

      John S. Renshaw, Ajay Upadhyaya, Vijaykumar Upadhyaya, Ian B. Cooper and Ajeet Rohatgi

      Version of Record online: 14 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2316

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      This paper reports on the use of ultraviolet laser for forming segmented selective emitters on POCl 3 n  + –p–p  +  solar cells. We show that a novel selective emitter design that is segmented instead of continuous, combined with an emitter etchback process gives an efficiency improvement of about 0.3% absolute over a standard industrial type solar cell and 0.2% absolute improvement over a non-segmented selective emitter solar cell.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publication
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communication
    5. Applications
    6. Broader Perspectives
    7. Literature Survey
    1. Improved micromorph solar cells by means of mixed-phase n-doped silicon oxide layers (pages 148–155)

      Paola Delli Veneri, Lucia V. Mercaldo and Iurie Usatii

      Version of Record online: 3 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1168

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      The use of doped silicon oxide as alternative n-layer in micromorph solar cells is proposed as a means to obtain high current values using a simple Ag back contact and no extra reflector between the component cells. Higher currents for both cells were obtained in comparison with standard devices. These results show the high potential of these layers as ideal reflectors in thin film silicon solar cells with advantages at production level due to the significant simplification of the device structure.

    2. Life prediction for CIGS solar modules part 1: modeling moisture ingress and degradation (pages 156–172)

      Dennis J. Coyle

      Version of Record online: 10 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1172

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      Coupled moisture ingress calculations and degradation kinetics for CIGS solar cells predict module life for various cells, packages, and climates. Moisture ingress and degradation scale with the climate and the package diffusion half-time. Moisture-sensitive cells require barriers of 10−4 g/m2 day or better. For diffusion-controlled packages, life depends on the square root of package permeability and cell degradation rate. Acceleration factors for damp heat versus Miami are nonlinear and range from 10X to 700X, depending on the package and cell degradation kinetics.

    3. Life prediction for CIGS solar modules part 2: degradation kinetics, accelerated testing, and encapsulant effects (pages 173–186)

      Dennis J. Coyle, Holly A. Blaydes, Rebecca S. Northey, James E. Pickett, Kaustubh R. Nagarkar, Ri-An Zhao and James O. Gardner

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1171

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      Measured degradation kinetics of copper indium gallium di-selenide solar cells are used in a life model based on diffusion of water through a module package subjected to weather conditions. Cells with an aluminum-doped zinc oxide window layer degrade 25× faster than cells using indium tin oxide, the electrically conducting adhesive used in flexible contacts can be a major factor in degradation, and predictions of longer life with thicker layers of high-water-solubility encapsulants are confirmed experimentally.

    4. Optical transmission as a fast and non-destructive tool for determination of ethylene-co-vinyl acetate curing state in photovoltaic modules (pages 187–194)

      Heng-Yu Li, Laure-Emmanuelle Perret-Aebi, Ricardo Théron, Christophe Ballif, Yun Luo and Ronald F. M. Lange

      Version of Record online: 12 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1175

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      A non-destructive optical method for determining the poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) gel content in a photovoltaic (PV) module is proposed on the basis of measuring the diffuse transmission (or the haze factor) of the PV module. This fast approach holds strong potential for an in-line monitoring of the EVA gel content of every PV module produced, which will significantly contribute to the quality control process needed in future high-throughput PV production lines.

    5. Analytic treatment of the distributed resistance of the window layer in solar cells with parallel grids (pages 195–201)

      Kyu-Seok Lee

      Version of Record online: 10 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1177

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      This paper presents a formalism to understand the effect of distributed resistance of the window layer on the current–voltage characteristics of solar cells with parallel grids. Along the window/active-layer interface, the current density and the electric potential are calculated iteratively from the current density–voltage relation and the Laplace equation, respectively. The former property is approximated in a series expansion of sinusoidal functions, which leads to an analytic solution to the electric potential in the window layer.

    6. Temperature dynamics of multijunction concentrator solar cells up to ultra-high irradiance (pages 202–208)

      Avi Braun, Baruch Hirsch, Alexis Vossier, Eugene A. Katz and Jeffrey M. Gordon

      Version of Record online: 24 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1179

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      Experimental results for the effect of irradiance (up to 8600 suns) on the temperature coefficients of the key performance parameters of multijunction concentrator solar cells, generated with a flash-like, real-sun optical system, are reported. The implications of the time scales involved are also addressed, including their implications for corresponding measurements from solar simulators with pulsed artificial light and for the performance evaluation of concentrator photovoltaics.

    7. On the reported experimental evidence for the quasi-Fermi level split in quantum-dot intermediate-band solar cells (pages 209–216)

      Ahmed A. Abouelsaood, Moustafa Y. Ghannam and Jef Poortmans

      Version of Record online: 20 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1192

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      A careful re-examination of the reported experimental evidence for the quasi-Fermi level split in quantum-dot intermediate-band solar cells shows that a separation of the quasi-Fermi levels of the intermediate and the conduction bands is not consistent with the experimental results of the quantum efficiency and the luminescence intensity of the InAs/GaAs cells, which rather indicate that the temperature of the optically active regions of the cell during the electroluminescence measurements is about 525 K.

    8. Improvement of the cell performance in the ZnS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by the sputter deposition of a bilayer ZnO : Al film (pages 217–225)

      Dong Hyeop Shin, Ji Hye Kim, Young Min Shin, Kyung Hoon Yoon, Essam A. Al-Ammar and Byung Tae Ahn

      Version of Record online: 6 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2319

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      To protect the ZnS/CIGS interface during a sputtering process, a bilayer ZnO : Al film was developed. The introduction of a 50-nm-thick ZnO : Al layer deposited at 50 W prevented sputtering damage. The ZnS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell with the bilayer ZnO : Al film yielded a cell efficiency of 14.68 %. Therefore, the application of bilayer ZnO : Al film to the window layer is suitable for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with a ZnS buffer layer.

  3. Short Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publication
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communication
    5. Applications
    6. Broader Perspectives
    7. Literature Survey
    1. An efficient titanium-based photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell under back-side illumination (pages 226–231)

      Ting-Ya Tsai, Chih-Ming Chen, Sheng-Jye Cherng and Shing-Yi Suen

      Version of Record online: 22 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1173

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      Pretreatment of H2O2 was performed on Ti foil to form high-density networked TiO2 nanosheets on Ti surface as photoanode substrate for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The networked TiO2 nanosheets provide high surface area for electrical contact with TiO2 nanoparticle film, which enhances electron transfer from TiO2 nanoparticle film to Ti substrate. Their nearly vertical orientation to Ti substrate also provides a direct pathway for rapid electron transport. The DSSC shows a high-energy conversion efficiency of 7.1% under back-side illumination.

  4. Applications

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publication
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communication
    5. Applications
    6. Broader Perspectives
    7. Literature Survey
    1. Temperature-controlled light-emitting diode lamp for photovoltaic rural applications (pages 232–239)

      Alfonso Gago-Calderón, José Fernández-Ramos and Luis Narvarte

      Version of Record online: 22 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1170

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      The key element of LED lamp reliability is the working temperature.

    2. Modeling of a concentrating photovoltaic system for optimum land use (pages 240–249)

      Yong Sin Kim, Sung-Mo Kang and Roland Winston

      Version of Record online: 18 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1176

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      A comprehensive modeling of a high concentrating photovoltaic system is introduced. Modeling includes, first, a more accurate estimation of hourly direct normal irradiance with location-dependent direct normal irradiance and air mass changes according to the sun's elevation. Second, mismatch effects of modules are factored in. Third, various power optimization and conversion levels are taken into account for optimization with self-shading in each module. The tracker array configuration has been optimized to maximize energy harvest by getting a maximum capacity factor for a given ground coverage ratio.

  5. Broader Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publication
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communication
    5. Applications
    6. Broader Perspectives
    7. Literature Survey
    1. Assessment of domestic photovoltaic systems based on real options theory (pages 250–262)

      Eduardo Alejandro Martinez-Cesena, Brian Azzopardi and Joseph Mutale

      Version of Record online: 22 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2208

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      The use of real options theory can lead to the enhancement of the economic attractiveness of domestic photovoltaic (PV) projects. Additionally, it can facilitate the penetration of organic-based PV technologies for the generation of power in the domestic sector. This paper proposes a real options-based methodology with the aforementioned characteristics for the planning of domestic PV systems and illustrates the application of the methodology with several case studies based on the UK.

  6. Literature Survey

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publication
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communication
    5. Applications
    6. Broader Perspectives
    7. Literature Survey
    1. Photovoltaics literature survey (No. 100) (pages 263–266)

      Santosh Shrestha

      Version of Record online: 20 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2370

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