Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications

Cover image for Vol. 21 Issue 3

May 2013

Volume 21, Issue 3

Pages 267–391

  1. Accelerated Publication

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publication
    3. Research Articles
    4. Applications
    5. Broader Perspectives
    6. Literature Survey
    1. Nickel silicide contacts formed by excimer laser annealing for high efficiency solar cells (pages 267–275)

      Loic Tous, Jean-Francois Lerat, Thierry Emeraud, Razvan Negru, Karim Huet, Angel Uruena, Monica Aleman, Johan Meersschaut, Hugo Bender, Richard Russell, Joachim John, Jef Poortmans and Robert Mertens

      Version of Record online: 28 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2362

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      In this paper, we demonstrate that by using large area (10 × 10 mm2), excimer laser annealing (ELA) self-aligned nickel silicide contacts can be formed, and subsequently, Cu plated on industrial shallow emitters without the associated junction degradation. The impact of the ELA fluence was evaluated using sheet resistance measurements, transmission electron microscopy, quasi-steady-state photo-conductance lifetime measurements, and finite element simulations. In this work, the best performing large area solar cell with the ELA process reached 20.0% energy conversion efficiency.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publication
    3. Research Articles
    4. Applications
    5. Broader Perspectives
    6. Literature Survey
    1. AlGaAs/GaAs superlattice solar cells (pages 276–282)

      Maykel Courel, Julio C. Rimada and Luis Hernández

      Version of Record online: 9 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1178

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      Barnham and Duggan, in their pioneer work in 1990, proposed that a superlattice, grown in the AlGaAs/GaAs system, would offer a new approach to the high-efficiency solar cell. However, superlattice solar cells have been only recently published, which did not take into account the presence of the electric field. So far, multiple quantum wells instead of superlattice solar cells have been reported. In the present work, a theoretical model is performed to study the viability of the AlGaAs/GaAs superlattice solar cell.

    2. Solar and photovoltaic forecasting through post-processing of the Global Environmental Multiscale numerical weather prediction model (pages 284–296)

      Sophie Pelland, George Galanis and George Kallos

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1180

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      Solar and photovoltaic (PV) forecasts for horizons between 0 and 48 h ahead were developed through post-processing of the Global Environmental Multiscale numerical weather prediction model and compared with measured irradiance and PV power data. With the use of spatial averaging and a Kalman filter, solar forecast root mean square error was reduced by 15% compared with the Global Environmental Multiscale forecasts without post-processing. PV forecast RMSE ranged from 6.4% to 9.2% of rated power, with about 76% of forecast errors within ±5% of the rated power.

    3. Solar home system electrification in dispersed rural areas: a 10-year experience in Jujuy, Argentina (pages 297–307)

      P. Díaz, C. A. Arias, M. Gomez-Gonzalez, D. Sandoval and R. Lobato

      Version of Record online: 18 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1181

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      Small and medium size PV rural market costs are higher than urban equivalents. Reliability of PV modules and charge controllers depend on geographical/meteorological conditions, but are constant failure-rate elements. Battery field lifetime strongly depends on the socio-economical environment, together with technical failures and degradation.

    4. Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells (pages 308–318)

      M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins and G. Sala

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1183

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      The effect of spatial and spectral non-uniform irradiance distribution on multi-junction solar cell performance was analyzed using an integrated approach. Irradiance and spectral distributions were obtained by means of ray-tracing simulation and by direct imaging at a range of cell-to-lens distances. At the same positions, I–V curves were measured and compared in order to evaluate non-uniformity effects on cell performance.

    5. Design principles for light trapping in thin silicon films with embedded dielectric nanoparticles (pages 319–325)

      James R. Nagel and Michael A. Scarpulla

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1187

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      We investigate the light trapping properties of embedded dielectric nanospheres spheres in thin film solar cells. Design principles are inferred from numerical simulation and Mie theory. Maximum absorption gain in a 1.0 µm silicon film was found to be 23.5% using SiO2 nanospheres.

    6. High-rate deposition of a-Si:H thin layers for high-performance silicon heterojunction solar cells (pages 326–331)

      Chie-Sheng Liu, Chia-Yin Wu, Ian-Wei Chen, Hseuh-Chuan Lee and Lu-Sheng Hong

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1189

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      Epitaxial growth of a-Si:H layers occurs on crystalline silicon surfaces at a low substrate temperature (90 °C) when the deposition rate is low (0·5 Å/s); in contrast, amorphous structures remain at temperatures as high as 150 °C when deposition is performed at a high rate of 4·2 Å/s. Using this knowledge, a very low surface recombination velocity (7·6 cm/s) was achieved for an a-Si:H passivated crystalline silicon wafer.

    7. Influence of Mo back contact porosity on co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film properties and related solar cell (pages 332–343)

      P. Bommersbach, L. Arzel, M. Tomassini, E. Gautron, C. Leyder, M. Urien, D. Dupuy and N. Barreau

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1193

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      The properties of the Mo back contact in Cu(In,Ga)Se2-thin film solar cell grown on soda-lime glass strongly impact the performance of the devices. This figure plots the cell parameters for different Mo porosity to sodium; the efficiency varies by 3 abs.% only by changing this back contact property. This evolution can be explained through the combination of improving J0 and decreasing Rsh with increasing Cu(In,Ga)Se2 sodium content.

    8. Luminescence coupling effects on multijunction solar cell external quantum efficiency measurement (pages 344–350)

      Swee Hoe Lim, Jing-Jing Li, Elizabeth H. Steenbergen and Yong-Hang Zhang

      Version of Record online: 30 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1215

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      The external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the InGaAs subcell of an InGaP/InGaAs/Ge multijunction solar cell was measured under varying light bias conditions. The effect of luminescence coupling due to radiative emission from the InGaP subcell caused artifacts in the InGaAs subcell EQE measurement. The effect was modeled using small signal analysis and measured by detecting the luminescence from the InGaP subcell to explain in detail the origin of this effect and how it affects the EQE measurement.

  3. Applications

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publication
    3. Research Articles
    4. Applications
    5. Broader Perspectives
    6. Literature Survey
    1. Effect of carbon containing SiNx antireflection coating on the screen-printed contact and low illumination performance of silicon solar cell (pages 351–358)

      Moon Hee Kang, Ajeet Rohatgi, Junegie Hong, Brian Rounsaville, Vijaykumar Upadhyaya, Abasifreke Ebong and Arnab Das

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1184

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      Screen-printed metal contact formation through a carbon containing antireflection coating was investigated for silicon solar cells by fabricating carbon-free SiNx and carbon-rich SiCxNy film. SiCxNy-coated solar cells showed less degradation under lower illumination (<1000 W/m2) compared with the SiNx-coated cells due to reduced fill factor degradation under low illumination. Theoretical calculations support that this is a direct result of high shunt resistance. Detailed photovoltaic system and cost modeling is performed to quantify the enhanced energy production and the reduced levelized cost of electricity.

    2. Analytical study and evaluation results of power optimizers for distributed power conditioning in photovoltaic arrays (pages 359–373)

      Ricardo Orduz, Jorge Solórzano, Miguel Ángel Egido and Eduardo Román

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1188

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      The analytical methods and new expressions set out in this paper provide useful information on the behavior of cascade maximum power point tracking (MPPT) converters applied to each photovoltaic (PV) module in a typical grid-connected PV system. A novel characterization method allows to verify on site, and at the same time, associate the PV module and its MPPT converter.

      The progressive shadow profile test provides important information on the tracking of the MPP and the conversion ratio limits. Also, the correlation between punctual shading levels and the power improvement factor allow to identify when to reach the input power maximization using MPPT strategy.

    3. Innovation and fabrication of 5.5 generation image-patterned translucent photovoltaic module by using laser scribing technology (pages 374–378)

      Shui-Yang Lien, Chia-Hsun Hsu and Yu-Chih Ou

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1211

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      The technique of image patterning on solar modules introduces a new field for solar cell use as luxury class with conventional power generation. Printing and customization on solar module from small to bigger scales enable us to use this technology match with every kind of geometry including house interior, office, building, and advertisement hoarding. The manufacturing process is cost effective, and only an additionally simple laser-scribing process is needed.

  4. Broader Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publication
    3. Research Articles
    4. Applications
    5. Broader Perspectives
    6. Literature Survey
    1. Life cycle assessment of high-concentration photovoltaic systems (pages 379–388)

      Vasilis M. Fthenakis and Hyung Chul Kim

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1186

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      The life-cycle of the Amonix HCPV systems with II/V solar cells operating in the US Southwest has a lower environmental profile than that of conventional flat-plate crystalline Si systems operating in the same high-insolation regions. The estimated energy payback time of the Amonix 7700 PV system in operation at Phoenix, AZ, is only 0.9 years.

  5. Literature Survey

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publication
    3. Research Articles
    4. Applications
    5. Broader Perspectives
    6. Literature Survey
    1. Photovoltaics literature survey (no. 101) (pages 389–391)

      Santosh Shrestha

      Version of Record online: 22 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2384

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