Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications

Cover image for Vol. 21 Issue 4

June 2013

Volume 21, Issue 4

Pages 393–819

  1. Accelerated Publication

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publication
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Broader Perspectives
    7. Literature Survey
    1. High-speed atmospheric atomic layer deposition of ultra thin amorphous TiO2 blocking layers at 100 °C for inverted bulk heterojunction solar cells (pages 393–400)

      David Muñoz-Rojas, Haiyan Sun, Diana C. Iza, Jonas Weickert, Li Chen, Haiyan Wang, Lukas Schmidt-Mende and Judith L. MacManus-Driscoll

      Version of Record online: 24 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2380

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      The potential of a novel spatial atmospheric atomic layer deposition (AALD) system for the ultrafast, low temperature fabrication of high quality blocking layers is demonstrated. Thin (~12 nm) amorphous TiO2 films can be deposited at 100 °C in only 37 s over a 7.8 cm2 area. P3HT-PCBM-based solar cells fabricated with the AALD films show performances comparable with cells made using TiO2 films deposited with orders of magnitude longer processing times and/or higher temperatures. In addition, the novel AALD system is easily scalable and compatible with roll-to-roll processing.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publication
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Broader Perspectives
    7. Literature Survey
    1. Non-destructive lateral mapping of the thickness of the photoactive layer in polymer-based solar cells (pages 402–419)

      Kristian O. Sylvester-Hvid, Thomas Tromholt, Mikkel Jørgensen, Frederik C. Krebs, Michael Niggemann, Klaus Zimmermann and Andreas W. Liehr

      Version of Record online: 30 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1190

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      An experimental method for non-destructive mapping the thickness of the photo-active layer in organic solar cells is presented and demonstrated. The underlying methodology required for an efficient and automated data processing leading the thickness maps is outlined. In three application examples, the thickness distribution is then studied for P3HT:PCBM spun at different speed on ITO-glass (A), on PEDOT:PSS coated ITO-glass (B), and for P3HT:PCBM slot-die coated on ITO-covered PET foil using a concentration gradient for P3HT:PCBM (C).

    2. A mechanism of solar cell degradation in high intensity, high temperature space missions (pages 420–435)

      C. G. Zimmermann, C. Nömayr, M. Kolb and A. Rucki

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1195

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      A new degradation mechanism of photovoltaic assemblies, active in high intensity, high temperature space environments, was observed. Organic acids can form on external reaction surfaces such as Ag busbars, through the interaction of polysiloxanes with ultraviolet light and transport metallic impurities such as Cu to the cell. For this failure mechanism to be prevented, which resulted in up to 20% performance degradation because of the formation of Cu3P inclusions, an adapted solar cell design is suggested.

    3. Impact of CdTe surface composition on doping and device performance in close Space sublimation deposited CdTe solar cells (pages 436–443)

      J. D. Major, Y. Y. Proskuryakov and K. Durose

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1196

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      The in-diffusion of chlorine and oxygen species into CdTe layers is shown to be hindered by a Cd-rich surface layer. By etching the surface prior to CdCl2 treatment, significant increases in device performance are achieved.

    4. Electrical performance increase of concentrator solar cells under Gaussian temperature profiles (pages 444–455)

      Daniel Chemisana and Joan Ignasi Rosell

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1205

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      Experimental results obtained from J–V curve analysis of a solar cell under concentration, with uniform, Gaussian and anti-Gaussian temperature profiles, have been analysed.

      Compared with a cell subjected to uniform temperature, the Gaussian temperature profile leads to a maximum power output 1.52% higher and the anti-Gaussian 3.31% lower.

      It has been demonstrated that for a determined illumination profile, it is possible to tailor the temperature pattern curve to maximise the cell Voc.

    5. Towards thinner and low bowing silicon solar cells: form the boron and aluminum co-doped back surface field with thinner metallization film (pages 456–461)

      Xin Gu, Xuegong Yu, Jinglin Xu, Ruixin Fan and Deren Yang

      Version of Record online: 18 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1206

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      We have demonstrated the screening-printing B and Al mixture metallization film technique for the aim of pushing forward the application of thinner wafers. This technique can raise the carrier concentration in the back surface field by more than one order of magnitude and minimizing the back surface recombination at a low firing temperature (≤800 °C). Using this technique largely reduce the metallization paste thickness at the rear while not degrading the solar cell efficiency.

    6. Microcontroller-based simple maximum power point tracking controller for single-stage solar stand-alone water pumping system (pages 462–471)

      P. Packiam, N. K. Jain and I. P. Singh

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1207

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      The proposed microcontroller-based simple maximum power point tracking controller improves steady-state and transient responses of the photovoltaic power-fed single-stage solar stand-alone water pumping system. It is verified through simulation and tested in the laboratory prototype.

    7. Intermediate band photovoltaics based on interband–intraband transitions using In0.53Ga0.47As/InP superlattice (pages 472–480)

      Weiguo Hu, Yukihiro Harada, Aiko Hasegawa, Tomoya Inoue, Osamu Kojima and Takashi Kita

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1208

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      We present a theoretical model to study intermediate band (IB) photovoltaics (PV) mechanism, which incorporates a quantum interband–intraband transition into the macroscopic drift–diffusion, potential distribution and detailed balance process. Our analysis reveals that superlattice (SL) structures can be a potential candidate for the next-generation ultra high-efficiency PV. Both the IB configuration and interband–intraband transition are determined by the SL structure, and an efficiency contour plot has been calculated to guide quantum design of In0.53Ga0.47As/InP SLs.

    8. Solar spectral influence on the performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules under fine weather and cloudy weather conditions (pages 481–489)

      Tetsuyuki Ishii, Kenji Otani, Takumi Takashima and Yanqun Xue

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1210

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      The influence of solar spectrum on the performance of various kinds of photovoltaic modules under cloudy weather conditions as well as under fine weather conditions is quantitatively evaluated by using spectral factor (SF). Furthermore, the relationship in SF between the top and bottom layers of a-Si : H/µc-Si : H (multi-junction tandem) modules is investigated. The SF shows a negative correlation between the top and bottom layers under fine weather conditions, although the correlation is very weak under cloudy weather conditions.

    9. Accurate series resistance measurement of solar cells (pages 490–499)

      Kean Chern Fong, Keith R. McIntosh and Andrew W. Blakers

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1216

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      Series resistance (Rs) in solar cells is distributed and varies significantly with operating conditions. This work presents a review of common Rs measurement methods with specific attention given to the multi-light method, which gives accurate measurement of Rs-light and Rs-dark as a function of operating current and permits extraction of pseudo-J-V curve and pseudo-parameters. A modified version of a two-diode model, which includes Rs(J), is presented, which allows much better fit to experimental J-V curve.

    10. Energy yield prediction errors and uncertainties of different photovoltaic models (pages 500–516)

      George Makrides, Bastian Zinsser, Markus Schubert and George E. Georghiou

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1218

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      This paper analyzes four models for the prediction of the annual DC energy yield of different grid-connected PV technologies. The obtained results indicate that the different models predict the energy yield of different PV technologies with various degrees of accuracy. In addition, each model's combined uncertainty was considered, as in some cases, the model uncertainty exceeds the prediction error and can therefore mask the capability of each model to predict accurately the energy yield compared to real-measured data.

    11. Transparent conductive oxide-less three-dimensional cylindrical dye-sensitized solar cell fabricated with flexible metal mesh electrode (pages 517–524)

      Jun Usagawa, Shyam S. Pandey, Yuhei Ogomi, Sho Noguchi, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi and Shuzi Hayase

      Version of Record online: 13 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1223

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      Cylindrical transparent conductive oxide-less dye-sensitized solar cell in glass tube/metal mesh-TiO2-dye/electrolyte film/Pt-Ti-rod cell architecture having capability of self-light tracking and near infrared photon harvesting is being reported. Replacing the glass tube by heat-shrinkable tube led to the enhancement in photoconversion efficiency. Laser beam- induced current profiling exhibited the nearly same current in the axial as well as radial directions. Optimized best cell in this novel device architecture gave an external power conversion efficiency of 5.58 % at AM 1.5 under simulated solar irradiation.

    12. Enhanced efficiency of phenothiazine derivative organic dye-sensitized ionic liquid solar cells on aging (pages 525–533)

      Zhi Bin Xie, Anupam Midya, Kian Ping Loh and Daniel J. Blackwood

      Version of Record online: 13 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1225

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      Electrochemical impedance shows that efficiency enhancement of a phenothiazine derivative dye-sensitized solar cells on aging is due to reduced recombination, which possibly originates from molecular re-orientation along with cation adsorption passivating the TiO2 surface.

    13. Influence of surface texture on the defect-induced breakdown behavior of multicrystalline silicon solar cells (pages 534–543)

      Wolfram Kwapil, Jan Nievendick, Annika Zuschlag, Paul Gundel, Martin C. Schubert and Wilhelm Warta

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1226

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      We show that the defect-induced diode breakdown at recombination active defects of multicrystalline silicon solar cells strongly depends on the etch pit depth, the etch pits resulting from selective etching of crystallographic defects during the surface texturization. The deeper the etch pits are, the lower is the local defect-induced breakdown voltage and the steeper is the increase of the reverse current locally flowing through defect-induced breakdown regions with increasing reverse bias.

    14. Texture and morphology variations in (In,Ga)2Se3 and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films grown with various Se source conditions (pages 544–553)

      Shogo Ishizuka, Akimasa Yamada, Paul Fons and Shigeru Niki

      Version of Record online: 10 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1227

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      (In,Ga)2Se3 precursor films showed systematic variations in texture and the Na distribution profile with varying Se source condition. Both the properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films and solar cells also showed systematic variations, and the open-circuit voltage and fill factor were found to be especially sensitive to the Se flux. RF-plasma cracked radical Se-grown (In,Ga)2Se3 precursor films featured granular morphologies and small grain sizes, although the final Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films displayed highly dense surfaces and large grain sizes.

    15. Spectrally and angle-resolved emission of thin film fluorescence collectors (pages 554–560)

      Hendrik Sträter, Sebastian Knabe, Thomas J.J. Meyer and Gottfried H. Bauer

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1228

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      We show, that under certain circumstances, an illuminated fluorescence collector does not emit light at the edge in all possible emission angles. This behavior gives access to a separation of bulk and surface scattering. Our experiments reveal, that the scattering of fluorescence at the surfaces is higher compared to the scattering in the bulk.

    16. Surface engineering in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells (pages 561–568)

      Sebastian Michael Schleussner, Jonas Pettersson, Tobias Törndahl and Marika Edoff

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1229

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      We investigated indium-rich surface modifications of three-stage co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films and resulting solar cells, evaluating them by means of material and electrical characterisation as well as by electrical modelling in scaps-1d.

      There is strong indium-gallium intermixing in the top layer, and no significant positive or negative effect of an indium-enhanced surface on the devices can be found.

    17. Improved nanocrystal formation, quantum confinement and carrier transport properties of doped Si quantum dot superlattices for third generation photovoltaics (pages 569–577)

      Dawei Di, Heli Xu, Ivan Perez-Wurfl, Martin A. Green and Gavin Conibeer

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1230

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      ‘Doped Si quantum dots in SiO2/Si3N4 hybrid matrix’ is a novel nanostructured material designed for the application of third generation photovoltaic cells. This material manages to constrain the growth of doped Si quantum dots effectively and enhances the apparent band gap. Electrical characterisation on Si QD/c-Si heterointerface test structures indicates the new material possesses improved carrier transport properties.

    18. Design, fabrication, and analysis of transparent silicon solar cells for multi-junction assemblies (pages 578–587)

      Christopher Kerestes, Yi Wang, Kevin Shreve, James Mutitu, Tim Creazzo, Paola Murcia and Allen Barnett

      Version of Record online: 23 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1232

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      Transparent silicon solar cells can lead to an increased efficiency of silicon-based multi-junction assemblies by transmitting near and below band gap energy light for conversion in a low band gap solar cell. A silicon + germanium system is analyzed, under full illumination and under a filter, to study the optical and photovoltaic effects textured silicon has compared with planar silicon. Although planar silicon allows greater Ge efficiency, textured Si generates greater system efficiency.

    19. Growth of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films by a novel single-stage route based on pulsed electron deposition (pages 588–594)

      S. Rampino, F. Bissoli, E. Gilioli and F. Pattini

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1234

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      A novel route for growing Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films, based upon the Pulsed Electron Deposition (PED) technique, is presented. PED process allows the stoichiometric deposition of CIGS layers in a single stage, without requiring any further treatments for Cu/(In+Ga) ratio adjustment nor selenization. Preliminary measurements of the performances of solar cells based on these films confirm the great potentiality of PED-grown CIGS as absorber layers.

    20. An investigation of band profile around the grain boundary of Cu(InGa)Se2 solar cell material by scanning probe microscopy (pages 595–599)

      Masaki Takihara, Takashi Minemoto, Youichi Wakisaka and Takuji Takahashi

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1235

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      The band profile around the grain boundaries (GBs) in Cu(InGa)Se2 was estimated from scanning tunneling spectroscopy and photo-assisted Kelvin probe force microscopy. The results indicate both downward bending of the conduction band edge and broadening of the band gap near GBs, and consequently we can conclude that photo-generated electrons and holes are easily separated by the built-in field near GBs and that their recombination at the GBs should be suppressed.

    21. Broadband scattering of the solar spectrum by spherical metal nanoparticles (pages 600–611)

      Tristan L. Temple and Darren M. Bagnall

      Version of Record online: 8 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1237

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      Metal nanoparticles are a promising approach for light trapping in solar cells due to their strong and highly tuneable scattering response. However, there are a large number of parameters that must be optimised to maximise scattering and minimise parasitic absorption. We have used simulated scattering spectra to study the importance of nanoparticle size, constituent metal, surface coverage and the refractive index of the surrounding medium. In the ideal case, over 97% of the AM1.5 spectrum from 400 to 1100 nm can be scattered.

    22. Specific energy consumption of PV reverse osmosis systems. Experiment and theory (pages 612–619)

      N. Fraidenraich, O. C. Vilela and G. A. Lima

      Version of Record online: 9 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1239

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      A procedure for calculating the specific energy consumption of a photovoltaic-reverse osmosis system is proposed, yielding a valuable tool to evaluate whether the region of operation of the system is adequate, according to the main aim of reducing water costs. Experimental and calculated results present a minimum (specific energy consumption) lying in a range of recovery rate smaller than the values obtained considering a limiting case, that is, when the applied pressure equals the transmembrane pressure at the output of the equipment.

    23. Annual performance enhancement of building integrated photovoltaic modules by applying phase change materials (pages 620–630)

      J. H. C. Hendricks and W. G. J. H. M. van Sark

      Version of Record online: 30 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1240

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      The performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules outdoors is negatively influenced by high module temperatures due to irradiation as a result of the negative temperature coefficient of their efficiency. Phase change materials (PCMs) are investigated as an option to decrease photovoltaic module temperature. A simplified heat balance model is used to calculate the extra energy gain of such a PV/PCM system; it is shown that with present day commercially available PCM materials, a moderate increase of up to 3% of the total annual energy output can be expected.

    24. Durability of polymeric encapsulation materials for concentrating photovoltaic systems (pages 631–651)

      David C. Miller, Matthew T. Muller, Michael D. Kempe, Kenji Araki, Cheryl E. Kennedy and Sarah R. Kurtz

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1241

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      The durability of polymeric encapsulation is examined for the concentrating photovoltaic application. A thermal runaway-mediated combustion mechanism was observed for hydrocarbon materials, particularly when the secondary optic was absent or particulate contamination was present. Behaviors including densification, cracking, and haze formation were observed for certain silicone materials.

    25. Spatially resolved photocurrent mapping of efficient organic solar cells fabricated on a woven mesh electrode (pages 652–657)

      William Kylberg, Fernando Araujo de Castro, Peter Chabrecek, Thomas Geiger, Jakob Heier, Patrick G. Nicholson, Frank Nüesch, Evangelos Theocharous, Uriel Sonderegger and Roland Hany

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1242

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      We present an improved transparent, flexible and conductive electrode based on a woven precision fabric, embedded into a transparent polymer layer with minimal metal wire exposure. Using the benchmark P3HT/PCBM active materials, we demonstrate organic solar cells with power conversion efficiencies of 3.1%. Spatially resolved photocurrent experiments highlight important design criteria for the further optimization of such fabric electrodes.

    26. Absorption coefficient for the intraband transitions in quantum dot materials (pages 658–667)

      Antonio Luque, Antonio Martí, Alex Mellor, D. Fuertes Marrón, I. Tobías and E. Antolín

      Version of Record online: 31 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1250

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      In this paper, we present calculations of the absorption coefficient for transitions between the bound states of quantum dots grown within a semiconductor and the extended states of the conduction band. It is concluded that the transitions are strong enough to provide a quick path to the conduction band for electrons pumped from the valence to the intermediate band.

    27. Improving spectral response of monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic modules using high efficient luminescent down-shifting Eu3+ complexes (pages 668–675)

      Jian Liu, Kai Wang, Wei Zheng, Wei Huang, Cheng-Hui Li and Xiao-Zeng You

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1251

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      By carefully modifying the absorption and emission features, the luminescent down-shifting (LDS) performances of Eu3+ complexes can be efficiently improved. The spectroscopic features of Eu3+ complex with a bispinene-containing bipyridyl ligand match well with the requirement of ideal LDS species for the monocrystalline silicon (c-Si) photovoltaic (PV) modules. Significant enhancement of PV performances of c-Si PV modules was obtained by using this complex as LDS species.

    28. Chromium distribution in multicrystalline silicon: comparison of simulations and experiments (pages 676–680)

      Jonas Schön, Holger Habenicht, Wilhelm Warta and Martin C. Schubert

      Version of Record online: 12 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1252

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      We studied the precipitation of chromium in multicrystalline silicon during the crystallization process and temperature treatments typical for solar cell processing. A model that was already successfully used for simulating heterogeneous precipitation of iron is transferred to chromium, allowing two-dimensional simulations of dissolved chromium and precipitate density. The observed accordance with spatially resolved measurements demonstrates the similarity of chromium to iron precipitation and the ability of our model to predict the dissolved chromium concentration in multicrystalline silicon.

    29. Optimization of picosecond laser structuring for the monolithic serial interconnection of CIS solar cells (pages 681–692)

      Gerhard Heise, Andreas Heiss, Christian Hellwig, Thomas Kuznicki, Helmut Vogt, Joerg Palm and Heinz P. Huber

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1261

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      We report on the optimization of picosecond laser structuring for the monolithic serial interconnection of CIS thin film solar cells. We have examined the structuring efficiencies for induced laser ablation processes, for elliptical and flat top beam shaping and for the application of different laser wavelengths. We structured the molybdenum back contact and the ZnO front contact with a process speed of 4 m/s and the CIS layer with 0.2 m/s, using only 2 W of laser power.

    30. Outdoor evaluation of concentrator photovoltaic systems modules from different manufacturers: first results and steps (pages 693–701)

      Eduardo F. Fernández, Pedro Pérez-Higueras, Antonio J. Garcia Loureiro and Pedro G. Vidal

      Version of Record online: 31 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1262

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      Summary: Concentrator photovoltaic outdoor measures from different manufacturers

      Several concentrator photovoltaic modules were measured under outdoor conditions in order to study the influence of atmospheric parameters in the south of Spain, Jaen. Particularly, the effect of direct annual irradiation (DNI), air temperature, and air mass were under study for 6 months. Figure shows results obtained for the modules under study versus DNI; a good linear fitting with DNI is shown.

    31. Multi-pronged analysis of degradation rates of photovoltaic modules and arrays deployed in Florida (pages 702–712)

      K. O. Davis, S. R. Kurtz, D. C. Jordan, J. H. Wohlgemuth and N. Sorloaica-Hickman

      Version of Record online: 15 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2154

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      In this study, the power degradation rates of two identical PV systems deployed in Florida are quantified using the Performance Ratio analytical technique and the translation of power output to an alternative reporting condition of 1000 W m−2 irradiance and cell temperature of 50 °C. We introduce a multi-pronged strategy for quantifying the degradation rates of PV modules and arrays using archived data.

    32. Estimation of multi-junction solar cell parameters (pages 713–723)

      Asaf Ben Or and Joseph Appelbaum

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2158

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      The paper presents a mathematical method and a procedure for extracting solar cell parameters of any type based on I–V measured data. The parameter values maybe used for photovoltaic arrays and systems performance analysis. For multi-junction solar cells, the parameters' values may be used for analysis of the current mismatch of the subcells, the power loss due to the mismatch, the output power of the solar cell and, to some extent, also for cell fabrication.

    33. System memory effects in the sizing of stand-alone PV systems (pages 724–735)

      Aikaterini Fragaki and Tom Markvart

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2160

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      Typical models based on daily energy balance show that the battery reaches full charge more frequently than the experimental results indicate, and that it remains at the full state of charge (SOC) for longer periods. This work has shown that the data cannot be fitted simply by taking into account the battery charging efficiency near the full SOC. A more refined model is suggested to account for memory effects when the battery is recovering from discharge.

    34. The role of intersubband optical transitions on the electrical properties of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells (pages 736–746)

      Greg Jolley, Lan Fu, Hao Feng Lu, Hark Hoe Tan and Chennupati Jagadish

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2161

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      Intersubband optical transitions are of great importance to theoretical models of quantum dot intermediate band solar cells. Very few studies have been performed to assess the magnitude of the role that intersubband optical transitions play in quantum dot solar cells. We report on a detailed experimental study of intersubband optical transitions of an In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dot solar cell.

    35. Light trapping in pyramidally textured crystalline silicon solar cells using back-side diffractive gratings (pages 747–753)

      Ralph Rothemund, Thomas Umundum, Gerald Meinhardt, Kurt Hingerl, Thomas Fromherz and Wolfgang Jantsch

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2192

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      We present a three-dimensional optical model for the investigation of back-side diffractive gratings for pyramidally textured solar cells. Optimized back-side gratings increase the absorption inside a solar cell by improved light trapping. For a 180-µm-thick crystalline silicon solar cell, the optical model predicts an increase of the short-circuit current density by 1.8 mA/cm2 corresponding to an increase in efficiency by 0.9% absolute.

  3. Short Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publication
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Broader Perspectives
    7. Literature Survey
    1. Narrow-bandgap CuIn3Te5 thin-film solar cells (pages 754–759)

      Takahiro Mise and Tokio Nakada

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1191

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      We propose CuIn3Te5 as a ternary semiconductor material for narrow-bandgap thin-film solar cells. Well-developed CuIn3Te5 grains were obtained at a substrate temperature of 250 °C. The best solar cell that was fabricated using 4·0-µm-thick CuIn3Te5 layers grown at 250 °C yielded a total area efficiency of 6·92% (Voc = 407 mV, Jsc = 33·1 mA/cm2, and FF = 0·514). A band diagram of the ZnO/CdS/CuIn3Te5 solar cell was also presented.

    2. Excellent boron emitter passivation for high-efficiency Si wafer solar cells using AlOx/SiNx dielectric stacks deposited in an industrial inline plasma reactor (pages 760–764)

      Shubham Duttagupta, Fen Lin, Kishan Devappa Shetty, Armin G. Aberle and Bram Hoex

      Version of Record online: 14 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1259

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      Very low emitter saturation current density (J0e) values of 10 and 45 fA/cm2 are obtained for 180 and 30 Ω/sq planar p+ emitters, respectively. The required thermal activation of the A|Ox films is performed in a standard industrial fast-firing furnace, making the developed passivation stack industrially viable. This work demonstrates an industrially feasible route for excellent passivation of p+ boron emitters for large area silicon wafer solar cells by using industrial inline plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition reactor.

  4. Applications

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publication
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Broader Perspectives
    7. Literature Survey
    1. Revitalization and analysis of operation of the autonomous photovoltaic system of the Uacari Floating Lodging House, Amazon-Brazil (pages 765–778)

      Wilson Macêdo, Marcos Galhardo, Marcelo Almeida, Aimé Carvalho Pinto, João Pinho, Josivaldo Modesto, José Penha and Otacilio Brito

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1217

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      This paper presents the development actions with basis in the detailed diagnosis, where it was possible to identify crucial installation errors, leading to the restoration of the entire system, including good sizing and standardized electric installation, continuous user training and system monitoring, which are important to enhance knowledge about the necessary actions for the effective functioning of the new system.

    2. Towards realization of a large-area light-emitting diode-based solar simulator (pages 779–789)

      B. H. Hamadani, K. Chua, J. Roller, M. J. Bennahmias, B. Campbell, H. W. Yoon and B. Dougherty

      Version of Record online: 27 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1231

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      This paper discusses the development and fabrication of a scalable large-area LED-based solar simulator that consists of multiple tapered light guides. Power delivery in the form of a synthesized AM 1.5 spectrum over an area of 25 cm × 50 cm with better than 10% spatial nonuniformity is demonstrated, and the spectral output, the spatial uniformity, and the temporal stability of the simulator in both the constant current mode and the pulsed-mode LED operation is evaluated and discussed.

    3. Losses produced by soiling in the incoming radiation to photovoltaic modules (pages 790–796)

      José Zorrilla-Casanova, Michel Piliougine, Jesús Carretero, Pedro Bernaola-Galván, Pedro Carpena, Llanos Mora-López and Mariano Sidrach-de-Cardona

      Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1258

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      A study has been carried out at the University of Malaga to quantify radiation losses caused by soiling on the surface of photovoltaic modules. The dependence of the irradiance losses on the angle of incidence and the ratio between diffuse and direct radiations are analysed. The authors propose a simple theoretical model that describes the qualitative behaviour of the irradiance losses during the day, taking into account the percentage of dirty surface and the diffuse/direct irradiance ratio.

  5. Broader Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publication
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Broader Perspectives
    7. Literature Survey
    1. Energy pay-back time: methodological caveats and future scenarios (pages 797–801)

      Marco Raugei

      Version of Record online: 12 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.1249

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Owing to the way the energy pay-back time (EPBT) of photovoltaics (PV) is operationally defined, a changing grid mix may result in severely limited reductions, or even possible increases in the EPBT of PV, despite improvements in PV technologies. Thus, EPBT may not provide the best indication of performance improvements in PV systems. Thus, it would be advisable to complement or possibly even replace EPBT with a different performance indicator having an absolute, rather than comparative, meaning.

    2. Environmental life cycle assessment of roof-integrated flexible amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon solar cell laminate (pages 802–815)

      N. J. Mohr, A. Meijer, M. A. J. Huijbregts and L. Reijnders

      Version of Record online: 16 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2157

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The environmental impacts of roof-integrated flexible amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon (a-Si/nc-Si) solar cell laminate are found to be similar to the environmental impacts of the roof-mounted common multicrystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) module. For the a-Si/nc-Si PV system under 1000 kWh/m2 annual insolation, we derived an energy payback time of 2.3 years.

      This figure shows contributions of production steps to the primary energy demand and to the impact on climate change of constituent production processes and other components of the amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon (a-Si/nc-Si) PV system.

  6. Literature Survey

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publication
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communications
    5. Applications
    6. Broader Perspectives
    7. Literature Survey
    1. Photovoltaics literature survey (no. 102) (pages 816–819)

      Santosh Shrestha

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2397

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