Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications

Cover image for Vol. 21 Issue 6

Special Issue: 27th EU PVSEC, Frankfurt, Germany, 2012

September 2013

Volume 21, Issue 6

Pages 1253–1431

  1. Paper Presented at 27TH EU PVSEC, Frankfurt, Germany, 2012

    1. Top of page
    2. Paper Presented at 27TH EU PVSEC, Frankfurt, Germany, 2012
    3. Literature Survey
    1. Critical metals in strategic photovoltaic technologies: abundance versus recyclability (pages 1253–1259)

      Annick Anctil and Vasilis Fthenakis

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2308

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      This work explores the material recycling potential of various commercial and under development photovoltaic technologies. It sheds light on a dimension of sustainability that has not been investigated before. Based on entropy analyses, documented by the experience of recycling electronic products, we show that recycling of some types of PV modules that are based on “abundant” materials could be burdened by complexity and lack of value, creating, therefore, concerns associated with both end-of life environmental impacts and resource availability.

    2. Instituto de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos de Concentración concentration photovoltaics hybrid system first year of operation and improvements (pages 1260–1275)

      Pablo Jesus Trujillo Serrano, Cesareo Alamillo Davila, Maria Martínez Montes, Oscar de la Rubia, Francisca Rubio, Daniel Masa-Bote, Manuel Castillo-Cagigal, Eduardo Matallanas, Estefania Caamaño-Martín and Alvaro Gutiérrez

      Version of Record online: 19 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2366

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      This paper presents the results obtained from the first months of operation of the concentration photovoltaic hybrid system installed at Instituto de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos de Concentración's facilities, together with exhaustive simulations. It is a first approach to the use of a concentration photovoltaic in office buildings. The contribution of this paper to the analysis of this new system and the existing tools available for its simulation, at least a part of it, can be considered as a starting point for the development of these kinds of systems.

    3. Optimizing geographic allotment of photovoltaic capacity in a distributed generation setting (pages 1276–1285)

      Bryan Urquhart, Manajit Sengupta and Jamie Keller

      Version of Record online: 24 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2334

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      A multi-objective optimization was performed to allocate a fixed capacity of photovoltaics among candidate sites such that energy was maximized and variability in the form of ramp rates was minimized, resulting in an optimal solution set of geographic allotment alternatives. A trade off_ was found between energy produced and variability experienced, whereby a decrease in variability necessitates a simultaneous decrease in energy. A method is presented for system designers to select the preferred combination of energy generation and variability to meet their needs.

    4. PV demand and supply in China (pages 1286–1291)

      H. L. Li, D. P. Chen, L. Zhao, Ch. L. Zhou, Zh. G. Liu and W. J. Wang

      Version of Record online: 25 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2356

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      It is very serious in 2013 for Chinese manufacturers. About half of current capacity will disappear. As grid parity is achieved in other countries in Asia and Africa, the supply will grow gradually, but the ratio of supply to domestic demand would not exceed 2.

    5. Technical and economical assessment of voltage control strategies in distribution grids (pages 1292–1307)

      Thomas Stetz, Markus Kraiczy, Martin Braun and Sebastian Schmidt

      Version of Record online: 24 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2331

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      The cost–benefit analysis shows that voltage-dependent active and reactive power control strategies of photovoltaic inverters can be used to increase the hosting capacity of a medium voltage grid on short notice and hence to save grid reinforcement costs for the distribution grid operator. The additional costs for the plant operators are highly dependent on the voltage control strategy applied.

    6. Intermediate-band-assisted hot-carrier solar cells using indirect-bandgap absorbers (pages 1308–1318)

      Yasuhiko Takeda and Tomoyoshi Motohiro

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2309

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      We have revealed that a new type of solar cells, intermediate-band-assisted hot-carrier solar cells using indirect-bandgap absorbers, can solve serious issues involved in intermediate-band solar cells and hot-carrier solar cells. This type no longer requires “photon selectivity”, where the spectral absorption ranges for the different interband transitions have no overlap with each other and relaxes the requisite for the thermalization time of hot carriers.

    7. Photovoltaics and zero energy buildings: a new opportunity and challenge for design (pages 1319–1336)

      Alessandra Scognamiglio and Harald N. Røstvik

      Version of Record online: 18 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2286

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      There is a need to rethink the way PV is used in relation to ZEBs and other buildings. With tall buildings, or in dense urban areas, wall and roof integration may not be sufficient to achieve a Net Zero Energy Balance. The PV system will, in numerous cases, have to extend beyond the building's footprint. The design challenge hence moves from the architectural to the landscape or even to the urban scale. This encourages new research in order to take up this challenge. Image A. Scognamiglio.

    8. Laser-doped solar cells exceeding 18% efficiency on large-area commercial-grade multicrystalline silicon substrates (pages 1337–1342)

      Tao Li, Wenjing Wang, Chunlan Zhou, Yang Song, Ye Duan and Youzhong Li

      Version of Record online: 12 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2292

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      Large-area multicrystalline silicon solar cells fabrication by laser doping is studied in this paper. The liquid dopant solution is sprayed onto the SiNx:H film to act as dopant source. Laser doping is performed to locally melt silicon substrates, and phosphorus dopant atoms are incorporated into the liquid silicon by liquid-phase diffusion to form a selective emitter. Light-induced plating is carried out for front side metallization. The influences of laser energy density and pulse overlap on electrical performance of large-area multicrystalline silicon solar cells are obtained. The laser energy density and pulse overlap are optimized in consideration of sufficient built-in voltage and small-scale laser-induced damage. The typical spectral response for large-area multicrystalline silicon solar cells by laser doping is presented. The typical efficiency distribution for 1-day production of the 10 MW production line shows the overall average efficiency above 18% on large-area commercial-grade multicrystalline silicon substrates for the 4 months of operation, confirming the potential for transferring high-efficiency selective emitter silicon solar cells by laser doping into a production line.

    9. ‘Edge-light’: combination of sensitive crack detection and luminescence measurements (pages 1343–1353)

      A. Ortner, O. Gräff, M. Stelzl, F. Macherey and R. Neubecker

      Version of Record online: 27 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2275

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      Edge-light is a combination of a very sensitive crack detection principle with luminescence measurements, usable for silicon wafers and cells. It is realized in a single setup with only one camera. All images are generated in a single pass in continuous motion.

    10. From high-efficiency n-type solar cells to modules exceeding 20% efficiency with aluminum-based cell interconnection (pages 1354–1362)

      Agnes Merkle, Henning Schulte-Huxel, Susanne Blankemeyer, Ilka Feilhaber, Robert Bock, Verena Steckenreiter, Sarah Kajari-Schroeder, Nils-Peter Harder and Rolf Brendel

      Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2297

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      We present the integrated development of back-contacted solar cells and an adequate module interconnection for a high-efficiency photovoltaic module. The impact of the busbars of our back-junction back-contact cells on the cell performance is analyzed, and we report on optimization of the cell/module interface. As a first step towards modules with busbar-free cells, we fabricated cells with only one busbar and interconnect them in series.

    11. High-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with improved light-soaking stability (pages 1363–1369)

      Takuya Matsui, Hitoshi Sai, Kimihiko Saito and Michio Kondo

      Version of Record online: 30 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2300

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      Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si : H) films are grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with a triode electrode configuration in which a SiH4 H2 glow-discharge plasma is confined spatially away from the substrate. By this method, the light-induced degradation of solar cell efficiency is reduced substantially. The stabilized efficiencies of 9.6% and 11.9% are obtained for a-Si : H single-junction and micromorph tandem solar cells, respectively.

    12. Performance results from micro-cell based high concentration photovoltaic research development and demonstration systems (pages 1370–1376)

      Kanchan Ghosal, Scott Burroughs, Karsten Heuser, Daniel Setz and Enrique Garralaga-Rojas

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2298

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      Semprius' novel microcell based high-concentration photovoltaic design has a concentration of >1100X and an externally validated efficiency of 33.9% at standard test condition. The design approach enables substrate reuse, short optical path, unique low-cost two-stage refractive optics, zero-cost thermal management, improved reliability and a highly scalable, massively parallel manufacturing process. Module characterization and on-sun results from a 3.5 kW research, development and demonstration system at the Instituto de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos de Concentracion, Spain are presented.

    13. Thin-film polycrystalline silicon solar cells formed by diode laser crystallisation (pages 1377–1383)

      Jonathon Dore, Rhett Evans, Ute Schubert, Bonne D. Eggleston, Daniel Ong, Kyung Kim, Jialiang Huang, Oliver Kunz, Mark Keevers, Renate Egan, Sergey Varlamov and Martin A. Green

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2282

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      Polycrystalline silicon films are formed on glass via diode laser crystallisation, creating large crystal grains up to 1 mm wide and 10 mm long. Solar cells are formed employing a rear point contacting scheme achieving cell efficiency of 8.4% with open-circuit voltage of 557 mV. Simple optimisation of the contacting scheme is expected to enable over 10% efficient cells in the near future.

    14. Power rating of photovoltaic modules including validation of procedures to implement IEC 61853-1 on solar simulators and under natural sunlight (pages 1384–1399)

      Robert P. Kenny, Davide Viganó, Elena Salis, Giorgio Bardizza, Matthew Norton, Harald Müllejans and Willem Zaaiman

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2365

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      This paper describes the measurement of photovoltaic module performance over a range of temperatures and irradiances according to the international standard IEC 61853 Part 1 to provide an assessment of the reproducibility of power matrix measurements obtained using different methods. The results show that for three different module technologies, the reproducibility is within the estimated measurement uncertainty. The suitability of the different methods is discussed including their limitations as applied to different modules technologies.

    15. Influences of silicon nanowire morphology on its electro-optical properties and applications for hybrid solar cells (pages 1400–1410)

      Hong-Jhang Syu, Shu-Chia Shiu, Yung-Jr Hung, Chen-Chih Hsueh, Tzu-Ching Lin, Thiyagu Subramani, San-Liang Lee and Ching-Fuh Lin

      Version of Record online: 24 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2375

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      SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells with wire arrays formed by depositing assisted metal during the etching process (DE method) have a better cell performance of PCE of 9.56%, Jsc of 28.55 mA/cm2, and Voc of 0.524 V. However, cells with wire arrays formed by depositing assisted metal before the etching process (BE method) have a worse cell performance of PCE of 8.66%, Jsc of 26.38 mA/cm2, and Voc of 0.517 V.

    16. BoS costs: status and optimization to reach industrial grid parity (pages 1411–1428)

      Stefan Ringbeck and Juergen Sutterlueti

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2383

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      Balance of system cost (BoS) reductions based on sub-BoS optimizations are investigated for different PV technologies and PV module formats.

      Industrial grid parity is expected in 2012 in Italy (system costs of 1.34€/Wp) and 2016 for Germany (system cost 1.07€/Wp). Sources for BoS cost reductions are explored to reach an LCoE of 0.084€/kWh (25% below industrial electricity price) and the “gas parity” level (0.064€/kWh) in 2016. For Germany, the total BoS costs must be further reduced to 37% (0.30€/Wp for Thin Film Si, 0.20€/Wp for c-Si). Evolutionary and revolutionary BoS approaches and cost reductions are discussed to meet these targets.

  2. Literature Survey

    1. Top of page
    2. Paper Presented at 27TH EU PVSEC, Frankfurt, Germany, 2012
    3. Literature Survey
    1. You have free access to this content
      Photovoltaics literature survey (No. 104) (pages 1429–1431)

      Santosh Shrestha

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2417