Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications

Cover image for Vol. 21 Issue 7

November 2013

Volume 21, Issue 7

Pages 1433–1558

  1. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Short Communications
    4. Application
    5. Broader Perspectives
    6. Literature Survey
    1. Improved conductive atomic force microscopy measurements on organic photovoltaic materials via mitigation of contact area uncertainty (pages 1433–1443)

      Maxim P. Nikiforov and Seth B. Darling

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2217

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      New technique for AFM-based quantitative electrical measurements is developed.Performance of the technique is validated on device-relevant OPV material. Electrical properties and chemical composition of the active layer found to be inhomogeneous at hundred-nanometers and micrometer length scales.

    2. Avalanche breakdown in multicrystalline solar cells due to preferred phosphorous diffusion at extended defects (pages 1444–1453)

      Jan Bauer, Dominik Lausch, Horst Blumtritt, Nikolai Zakharov and Otwin Breitenstein

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2220

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      Avalanche pre-breakdown in multicrystalline solar cells is found to be due to submicron-sized nearly spherical dents in the p–n junction. These dents are assumed to be caused by enhanced diffusion of phosphorous during emitter formation at special crystallographic line defects. In spite of a flat solar cell surface, this phenomenon leads to pre-breakdown due to locally enhanced electric fields even in alkaline textured solar cells, which normally exhibit a flatter surface than acidic textured ones.

    3. Evolution of metal plating for silicon solar cell metallisation (pages 1454–1468)

      Alison Lennon, Yu Yao and Stuart Wenham

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2221

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      Increasing silver prices and reducing silicon wafer thicknesses provide incentives for silicon solar cell manufacturing to develop new metallisation strategies that do not rely on screen printing and reduce silver usage. Recently, metal plating has re-emerged as a metallisation process that may address these future requirements. This paper reports on the evolution of metal plating techniques, from their use in early silicon solar cells to current light-induced plating processes.

    4. Temperature-dependent Hall-effect measurements of p-type multicrystalline compensated solar grade silicon (pages 1469–1477)

      Chiara Modanese, Maurizio Acciarri, Simona Binetti, Anne-Karin Søiland, Marisa Di Sabatino and Lars Arnberg

      Article first published online: 24 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2223

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      Hall-effect measurements were carried out on compensated mc-Si samples, at temperatures between 70 K and 373 K. At low temperature, the samples scales with compensation ratio and show a decrease in majority carrier mobility compared to uncompensated references, due to increased ionized impurity scattering. At high temperatures, the compensated samples approach the uncompensated references, due to the dominant lattice scattering mechanism.

    5. Current-matching estimation for multijunction cells within a CPV module by means of component cells (pages 1478–1488)

      César Domínguez, Ignacio Antón, Gabriel Sala and Stephen Askins

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2227

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      An indoor method is presented for the quantification of the current matching of a multijunction cell within a concentrator under arbitrary spectral irradiance conditions. The cell current is measured across a very large spectral sweep to force the relevant subcells into a limiting condition. The light spectrum is monitored using component cells. Results are presented for a pair of point-focus concentrators, showing a higher sensitivity to spectrum when no secondary lens is used.

    6. Accurate explicit equations for the fill factor of real solar cells—Applications to thin-film solar cells (pages 1489–1498)

      K. Taretto, M. Soldera and M. Troviano

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2235

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      We obtain accurate equations for the fill factor of solar cells suffering from both series and shunt resistance losses. The equations are applied on two examples: visualization of optimum alternative buffer layer thickness of organic solar cells, and investigation of shunt and series resistance limitations to the fill factor of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells under indoor illumination conditions. The figure shows how our model follows the fill factor of organic solar cell data where series and shunt resistance limit the fill factor.

    7. Temperature influence on performance degradation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells irradiated with protons (pages 1499–1506)

      Shin-ichiro Sato, Hitoshi Sai, Takeshi Ohshima, Mitsuru Imaizumi, Kazunori Shimazaki and Michio Kondo

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2342

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      Temperature influence on radiation degradation of a-Si:H solar cell is clarified using in-situ I-V measurement techniques. The radiation degradation is strongly affected by irradiation temperature and the thermal recovery of radiation degradation always occurs even during irradiation. Both the irradiation rate and the temperature should be controlled in conducting irradiation tests of a-Si:H solar cells for space use.

  2. Short Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Short Communications
    4. Application
    5. Broader Perspectives
    6. Literature Survey
    1. Enhanced light harvesting of Si solar cells via luminescent down-shifting using YVO4:Bi3+, Eu3+ nanophosphors (pages 1507–1513)

      C.K. Huang, Y.C. Chen, W.B. Hung, T.M. Chen, K.W. Sun and W.-L. Chang

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2222

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      The colloids of YVO4 nanoparticles on microtextured Si surface are demonstrated to have promising potential for efficient solar spectrum utilization in crystalline Si solar cells. The current experiments conclude that the colloids of YVO4 nanoparticles not only act as luminescent down-shifting centers in the ultraviolet region but also serve as an antireflection coating for enhancing the light absorption in the measured spectral regime.

    2. Reporting of irradiance modeling relative prediction errors (pages 1514–1519)

      Thomas E. Hoff, Richard Perez, Jan Kleissl, David Renne and Joshua Stein

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2225

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      This paper suggests that the mean absolute error (MAE) relative to the mean measured value may be the preferred metric to quantify the relative (percent) dispersion accuracy of irradiance models. This is because the metric is less sensitive to outliers and depends less upon the threshold applied to the validation data (e.g., whether nighttime values are included or not in the statistics).

  3. Application

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Short Communications
    4. Application
    5. Broader Perspectives
    6. Literature Survey
    1. A new electrical model for the analysis of a partially shaded dye-sensitized solar cells module (pages 1520–1530)

      Roberto Giannuzzi, Michele Manca and Giuseppe Gigli

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2219

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      The I–V characteristics of a dye solar cell module working in several different partial shading conditions have been modeled through the implementation of a double diode-based equivalent circuit, that is the same equivalent circuit normally used to simulate the cell working in forward bias, now inclusive of a second additional diode that accounts for the reverse behavior of the shaded element/s. A perfect matching between the experimentally measured I–V characteristics and the simulation results has been revealed in every analyzed illumination condition.

  4. Broader Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Short Communications
    4. Application
    5. Broader Perspectives
    6. Literature Survey
    1. Impact of photovoltaic orientation on its relative economic value in wholesale energy markets (pages 1531–1540)

      Marissa Hummon, Paul Denholm and Robert Margolis

      Article first published online: 9 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2198

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      Historical solar irradiance and wholesale market prices are evaluated to assess the benefits of a variety of orientations for fixed and tracking photovoltaic arrays. We find that orienting fixed arrays slightly to the west of due south generally increases their economic value in the simulated systems because of the time-varying value of electricity. This effect is small, typically providing an increase in value from 1% to 5%.

    2. Cumulative energy demand for small molecule and polymer photovoltaics (pages 1541–1554)

      Annick Anctil, Callie W. Babbitt, Ryne P. Raffaelle and Brian J. Landi

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2226

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      The embodied energy has been calculated for 15 new materials used in organic electronics, encompassing a variety of donor, acceptor, and interface compounds. With the use of this new inventory data, the life cycle energy impact of 26 different organic photovoltaic devices comprising single junction and multi-junction architectures has been calculated including bulk heterojunction polymer, planar small molecule, and planar-mixed small molecule. The cumulative energy demand is on average of 50% less than for conventional inorganic photovoltaics, motivating the continued development of both technologies.

  5. Literature Survey

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Short Communications
    4. Application
    5. Broader Perspectives
    6. Literature Survey
    1. You have free access to this content
      Photovoltaics literature survey (No. 105) (pages 1555–1558)

      Santosh Shrestha

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2438

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