Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications

Cover image for Vol. 22 Issue 1

January 2014

Volume 22, Issue 1

Pages 1–149

  1. Accelerated Publication

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publication
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communications
    5. Broader Perspectives
    6. Literature Survey
    1. You have free access to this content
      Solar cell efficiency tables (version 43) (pages 1–9)

      Martin A. Green, Keith Emery, Yoshihiro Hishikawa, Wilhelm Warta and Ewan D. Dunlop

      Version of Record online: 15 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2452

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      Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined, and new entries since July 2013 are reviewed.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publication
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communications
    5. Broader Perspectives
    6. Literature Survey
    1. Rapid annealing of reactively sputtered precursors for Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells (pages 10–17)

      Jonathan J. Scragg, Tove Ericson, Xavier Fontané, Victor Izquierdo-Roca, Alejandro Pérez-Rodríguez, Tomas Kubart, Marika Edoff and Charlotte Platzer-Björkman

      Version of Record online: 10 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2265

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      Cu2ZnSnS4 is a promising thin-film absorber material that presents some interesting challenges in fabrication when compared with Cu(In,Ga)Se2. Here, we demonstrate the development of large Cu2ZnSnS4 grains during rapid annealing of reactively sputtered Cu-Zn-Sn-S precursor films. A metastable precursor phase is proposed to explain structural properties and the high rate of grain growth.

    2. Effect of window layer composition in Cd1−xZnxS/CdTe solar cells (pages 18–23)

      Giray Kartopu, Andrew J. Clayton, William S.M. Brooks, Simon D. Hodgson, Vincent Barrioz, Alban Maertens, Dan A. Lamb and Stuart J.C. Irvine

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2272

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      CdS window layer thinning is commonly applied to increase photocurrent in chalcogenide solar cells, despite the risk of increased shunting. An alternative approach, by forming compositions of Cd1−xZnxS, is shown to improve the blue response of CdTe solar cells. An optimum Zn content, found to be x ≈ 0.7, boosts the average conversion efficiency by 37%.

    3. Direct observation of Cu, Zn cation disorder in Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cell absorber material using aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (pages 24–34)

      Budhika G. Mendis, Mervyn D Shannon, Max CJ Goodman, Jon D Major, Richard Claridge, Douglas P. Halliday and Ken Durose

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2279

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      Aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy is used to investigate Cu, Zn cation disorder in Cu2ZnSnS4 by measuring the composition of individual atom columns. A nanoscale composition inhomogeneity is observed with a high concentration of ZnCu+ donors. The spatially fluctuating electrostatic potential gives rise to potential wells in the electronic band structure. Deep potential wells reduce the carrier separation and collection efficiencies of solar cells. Chemically homogeneous Cu2ZnSnS4 material is therefore required for producing high-efficiency devices.

    4. Growth mechanisms of co-evaporated kesterite: a comparison of Cu-rich and Zn-rich composition paths (pages 35–43)

      Wan-Ching Hsu, Ingrid Repins, Carolyn Beall, Clay DeHart, Bobby To, Wenbing Yang, Yang Yang and Rommel Noufi

      Version of Record online: 24 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2296

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      High-temperature co-evaporation is attractive for pursuing high copper zinc tin chalcogenide cell efficiency, as it affords the real-time manipulation of elemental deposition rates and their simultaneous reaction to form the final phase during film formation. Such deposition conditions of simultaneous high temperature and high vacuum encountered in the single-step process result in different growth mechanisms, bring up different issues, and also open new possibilities to fabricate absorbers for efficient solar cells. This study explores depositions starting from different initial compositions and examines the phase evolution, grain morphology, and device performance of resulting copper zinc tin selenide films.

    5. Surface photovoltage spectroscopy on Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2/ZnS-nanodot/In2S3 systems (pages 44–50)

      Yanpeng Fu, Tomàs Rada, Christian-Herbert Fischer, Martha Ch. Lux-Steiner and Thomas Dittrich

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2305

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      ZnS nanodots deposited on Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 absorber and surface photovoltage (SPV) spectra of Mo / ZnS-nd / In2S3 for In2S3 deposited by spray ILGAR from chloride and acetylacetonate solutions demonstrating the decreased (increased) SPV signal related to defects below (absorption above) the bandgap of ZnS-nd / In2S3 (acac).

    6. Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film solar cells produced via co-evaporation and annealing including a SnSe2 capping layer (pages 51–57)

      Alex Redinger, Marina Mousel, Rabie Djemour, Levent Gütay, Nathalie Valle and Susanne Siebentritt

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2324

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      CZTSe thin film solar cells have been produced via co-evaporation followed by a high-temperature annealing including a SnSe2 capping layer. A solar cell efficiency of 5.1% has been achieved. The device exhibits low series resistance down to 120K, dominant bulk recombination, and the device is studied under different illumination conditions where a red kink effect is observed.

    7. Electrodeposited Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film solar cell with 7% power conversion efficiency (pages 58–68)

      Lian Guo, Yu Zhu, Oki Gunawan, Tayfun Gokmen, Vaughn R. Deline, Shafaat Ahmed, Lubomyr T. Romankiw and Hariklia Deligianni

      Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2332

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      High performance Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) photovoltaic materials were synthesized by electrodeposition of metal stack precursors followed by selenization. A champion CZTSe solar cell with 7.0% efficiency is demonstrated. This is the highest efficiency among all of the CZTSe solar cells prepared from electrodeposited metallic precursors reported to-date. In addition, a high performance electrodeposited CZTS (S only) solar cell was demonstrated and its device characteristics were compared against the CZTSe (Se only) cell.

    8. Control of the preferred orientations of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films and the photovoltaic conversion efficiency using a surface-functionalized molybdenum back contact (pages 69–76)

      Ju-Heon Yoon, Won-Mok Kim, Jong-Keuk Park, Young-Joon Baik, Tae-Yeon Seong and Jeung-hyun Jeong

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2338

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      The preferred orientations of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) films were strongly influenced by the surface density of Mo back contacts. Trilayer Mo back contact, consisting of very thin surface layer and a conventional bilayer, can provide the better controllability for the grain orientations of CIGS overlayer as well as its own good electrical and mechanical properties. The strong enhancement of CIGS grains toward (220)/(204) preferred orientation was demonstrated to considerably improve its photovoltaic conversion efficiency.

    9. Non-destructive optical analysis of band gap profile, crystalline phase, and grain size for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells deposited by 1-stage, 2-stage, and 3-stage co-evaporation (pages 77–82)

      Vikash Ranjan, Thomas Begou, Scott Little, Robert W. Collins and Sylvain Marsillac

      Version of Record online: 4 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2350

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      Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films co-evaporated by 1-stage, 2-stage, and 3-stage processes have been studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The disappearance of a Cu2-xSe optical signature, detected by real time SE during multistage CIGS, has enabled precise endpoint control. Band gap energies determined by SE as depth averages show little variation with process, whereas broadening parameters decrease with increasing number of stages. Refined SE analysis has revealed band gap profiling only for 3-stage CIGS. These results were correlated with solar cells parameters.

    10. The effect of Mo back contact ageing on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells (pages 83–89)

      Pedro M. P. Salomé, Viktor Fjallstrom, Adam Hultqvist, Piotr Szaniawski, Uwe Zimmermann and Marika Edoff

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2360

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      The ageing of the Mo back contact shows small but positive changes in the electrical performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells, namely an increase of the open circuit voltage, fill factor and efficiency. By ageing the Mo back contact, a slightly higher net acceptor concentration of Na contents similar to the ones of the reference sample is found. Heat treatment of fresh Mo layers in an oxygen atmosphere showed similar effects to ageing.

    11. Electrical properties of CIGS/Mo junctions as a function of MoSe2 orientation and Na doping (pages 90–96)

      Ju-Heon Yoon, Jun-Ho Kim, Won Mok Kim, Jong-Keuk Park, Young-Joon Baik, Tae-Yeon Seong and Jeung-hyun Jeong

      Version of Record online: 24 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2377

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      The electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Mo junctions were successfully characterized in terms of contact resistance using modified (inverse) transmission line method, in which the Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Mo contact resistance could be measured separately from the CIGS film sheet resistance. The measurement showed that the substantial Na doping as well as the switching of MoSe2 structure toward c-axis parallel orientation could reduce the barrier height at back contact, favoring higher photovoltaic conversion efficiency.

    12. Electrodeposition of ternary CuxSnySz thin films for photovoltaic applications (pages 97–106)

      Francesco Di Benedetto, Ilaria Bencistà, Stefano Caporali, Serena Cinotti, Antonio De Luca, Alessandro Lavacchi, Francesco Vizza, Maurizio Muniz Miranda, Maria Luisa Foresti and Massimo Innocenti

      Version of Record online: 17 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2386

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      In this study, a new approach to synthesize thin films of ternary copper and tin sulfides, technologically relevant for photovoltaic semiconductors, characterized by low cost of raw materials and absence of toxicity, is proposed. This approach is established within the electrodeposition ECALE technique, which enables the opportunely change of the sequence of deposition and of the number of cycles to obtain CuxSnySz thin films with different composition and thickness, precisely adjusting the bandgap depending on the target device.

    13. Stability of sub-micron-thick CdTe solar cells (pages 107–114)

      Naba R. Paudel, Kristopher A. Wieland, Matthew Young, Sally Asher and Alvin D. Compaan

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2396

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      This study examines whether the long-term stability of sputtered CdS/CdTe cells is degraded when the CdTe thickness is reduced from 2.1 to as little as 0.7 µm. Accelerated life test of sets of at least 20 unencapsulated cells of its thickness were studied at 85°C with continuous, one-sun illumination at open circuit bias. No statistically significant differences in degradation were observed after 900 h of accelerated life test. The lifetime of such cells is projected as 40 years under typical field conditions and activation energy assumptions.

  3. Short Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publication
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communications
    5. Broader Perspectives
    6. Literature Survey
    1. Effects of combined heat and light soaking on device performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with ZnS(O,OH) buffer layer (pages 115–121)

      Taizo Kobayashi, Hiroshi Yamaguchi and Tokio Nakada

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2339

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      The JV characteristics of MOCVD-ZnO:B/ZnS(O,OH)/CIGS solar cells before and after one-sun light soaking (LS) for 10 min and subsequent heat-light soaking (HLS) for 40 and 120 min. The total-area efficiency was improved from 8.5% to 11.3%, 16.7%, and 17.5% after 10-min LS, 40-min HLS, and 120-min HLS post-treatments, respectively. The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of post-treatments such as post-annealing, LS and HLS before and after the completion of cell fabrication on the cell performances and film properties.

    2. Solution processed high band-gap CuInGaS2 thin film for solar cell applications (pages 122–128)

      Se Jin Park, Jin Woo Cho, Joong Kee Lee, Keeshik Shin, Ji-Hyun Kim and Byoung Koun Min

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2354

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      A high band-gap (~1.55 eV) CuInGaS2 film is synthesized by a precursor solution-based coating method with an oxidation and a sulfurization. Because of the high band-gap optical property of the CuInGaS2 absorber film, a solar cell device with this film shows a relatively high open circuit voltage (787 mV) with a power conversion efficiency of 8.28% under standard irradiation conditions.

  4. Broader Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publication
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communications
    5. Broader Perspectives
    6. Literature Survey
    1. You have free access to this content
      A system dynamics model of tellurium availability for CdTe PV (pages 129–146)

      Yassine Houari, Jamie Speirs, Chiara Candelise and Robert Gross

      Version of Record online: 15 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2359

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      The availability of tellurium (Te) has been highlighted as a significant constraint to the growth of CdTe PV. In this study, the use of system dynamics modelling allows for a transparent and dynamic treatment of future Te supply to and demand from CdTe PV. The impact of several techno-economic parameters on maximum potential CdTe growth by 2050 is evaluated with the conclusion that further reductions in material intensity, and increased recovery rates of Te from copper anode slimes are needed to improve Te availability for CdTe PV.

  5. Literature Survey

    1. Top of page
    2. Accelerated Publication
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communications
    5. Broader Perspectives
    6. Literature Survey
    1. You have free access to this content
      Photovoltaics literature survey (No. 107) (pages 147–149)

      Santosh Shrestha

      Version of Record online: 15 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2456

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