Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications

Cover image for Vol. 22 Issue 8

August 2014

Volume 22, Issue 8

Pages 851–936

  1. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Applications
    4. Literature Survey
    1. Measuring degradation rates of PV systems without irradiance data (pages 851–862)

      Alex Cronin, Stephen Pulver, Daniel Cormode, Dirk Jordan, Sarah Kurtz and Ryan Smith

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2310

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Degradation rates for photovoltaic systems are studied by a new method that does not require irradiance data. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of photovoltaic systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is estimated using Bayesian statistical analysis.

    2. Investigation of Al back contacts and BSF formation by in situ TEM for silicon solar cells (pages 863–869)

      Sungeun Park, Jooyoung Song, Sung Ju Tark, Young Do Kim, Chel-jong Choi, Soonwoo Kwon, Sewang Yoon, Chang-Sik Son and Donghwan Kim

      Version of Record online: 26 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2322

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Back contacts made by Al evaporation and screen printing Al paste for Si solar cells were studied by TEM. Si was found to diffuse into Al during heating. Si diffusion made vacancies in the Si wafer. Al could then penetrate the Si wafer in spiked formations. Al spikes retreated during cooling, leaving a doped region (BSF).

    3. New explicit current/voltage equation for p-i-n solar cells including interface potential drops and drift/diffusion transport (pages 870–884)

      Kurt Taretto

      Version of Record online: 14 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2325

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      A new current(J)-voltage(V) equation for p-i-n solar cells is obtained, containing drift-diffusion transport and interface potential drops at the limits of the intrinsic layer. It turns out that accounting for interface potential drops constitutes a major correction to the classical uniform-field approach. Furthermore, the model fits experimental current/voltage curves of efficient nc-Si and μc-Si p-i-n solar cells under illumination and in the dark, yielding material parameters such as mobility-lifetime product, built-in voltage or effective surface recombination velocity.

    4. A novel power benefit prediction approach for two-axis sun-tracking type photovoltaic systems based on semiconductor theory (pages 885–902)

      Kun-Chang Kuo, Jen-Cheng Wang, Yu-Li Su, Jui-Jen Chou and Joe-Air Jiang

      Version of Record online: 26 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2327

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      This study proposes a novel method for estimating the power benefit harvested by the sun-tracking type (STT) photovoltaic (PV) system. The method is based on the semiconductor theory, and the dynamic characteristics of PV modules can be integrated with the solar incidence database to predict the energy harvested by an STT PV system. The annual energy increment provided by an STT PV system compared with that by a fixed-type PV system can be accurately estimated by the proposed method.

    5. A new method to characterize bifacial solar cells (pages 903–909)

      Jai Prakash Singh, Timothy M. Walsh and Armin G. Aberle

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2341

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The method characterizes the bifacial solar cells considering the bifacial operation, i.e. simultaneous front and rear side illumination. The method involves measurements of front side electrical parameters and rear side short-circuit current under STC conditions. The new parameters, bifacial 1.x efficiency and gain-efficiency product provides information related to the cell design and the end-use benefits from the bifacial modules. The method shows that the fill factor and the rear-to-front current ratio are the most critical parameters for bifacial solar cells.

  2. Applications

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Applications
    4. Literature Survey
    1. How accurate is a commercial monitoring system for photovoltaic plant? (pages 910–922)

      Lorenzo Fanni, Mattia Giussani, Matteo Marzoli and Miglena Nikolaeva-Dimitrova

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2328

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      A detailed uncertainty budget calculation was performed on commercial and dedicated monitoring systems for photovoltaic plant. The respective uncertainties on performance ratio are ±4% and ±16%. The values measured by the systems on crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon module arrays were compared over a 4-month period. The commercial system is accurate regarding current (<5%) and voltage (<2%), but it systematically underestimates irradiance (>10%), leading to an overestimation of performance ratio: +5% and +15%, respectively, for crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon arrays.

    2. About the origin of low wafer performance and crystal defect generation on seed-cast growth of industrial mono-like silicon ingots (pages 923–932)

      Ismael Guerrero, Vicente Parra, Teresa Carballo, Andrés Black, Miguel Miranda, David Cancillo, Benito Moralejo, Juan Jiménez, Jean-François Lelièvre and Carlos del Cañizo

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2344

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      The innovative seed-cast growth process can entail a turning point for the affected and fluctuating photovoltaic market. However, this approach still needs to be reviewed before moving to mass scale activities in a stable manner. In this paper, sources of defect generation, low performance ingot regions and the reutilization of the original seed (cost reduction) are discussed from the results of several industrial scale experiments using casting furnace stations. Some strategies to improve the process quality are also proposed.

  3. Literature Survey

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Applications
    4. Literature Survey
    1. You have free access to this content
      Photovoltaics literature survey (No. 112) (pages 933–936)

      Santosh Shrestha

      Version of Record online: 13 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2538

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