In an effort to reduce problem behavior, it is recommended that schools develop a continuum of positive behavior support (PBS) that focuses on prevention/early intervention as well as individualized student support systems for those students who display chronic problem behaviors. While there is a large database to support the use of PBS practices at the individual student level, the knowledge base supporting prevention/early intervention strategies is characterized as emerging. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of PBS prevention/early intervention strategies on the rate of problem behavior displayed by elementary school students during recess. Specifically, this study examined the effects of directly teaching playground-related behaviors and the use of a group contingency to reinforce mastery in an elementary school. Results indicated that the intervention reduced the frequency of problem behavior across three recess periods. Results are discussed with respect to support of an emerging empirical database and implications for practice. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.