The present study was designed to explore relations between implicit theories of intelligence, goal orientations, perceived competence, and school achievement. It was assumed that implicit theories of intelligence orient individuals toward particular goals, which in turn influence achievement behavior. Perceived competence was hypothesized to moderate the relationship between implicit theories, goal orientations and actual achievement. Subjects were 451 elementary and junior high school students. The results of Pearson product moment correlations and Path analysis show theoretically important intercorrelations that replicated previous research. Implicit theories were not related to academic achievement. Goal orientations had an indirect effect on achievement, which was mediated through perceived competence. Educational implications of these findings are discussed. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.