In response to ongoing concerns with student academic and behavior problems, antecedent strategies have garnered increasing attention. Antecedent intervention approaches focus on structuring the environment to prevent problems and enhance motivation. At the class-wide level, implementation of these strategies can create a structured and orderly environment to which most students are responsive. In the case of persistent behavior problems, specific events that precede problem behavior can be removed or modified to create individualized antecedent interventions. The empirical literature base supporting the value of this approach has witnessed rapid growth. In this article, we offer a rationale for the use of antecedent strategies and provide literature-based examples of applications within school settings at both the class-wide and individual levels. In addition, we discuss practical considerations for implementing antecedent interventions. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 44: 65–75, 2007.