Comparison of phonic analysis and whole word-reading on first graders' cumulative words read and cumulative reading rate: An extension in examining instructional effectiveness and efficiency



This study compared the instructional effectiveness and efficiency of three word-reading interventions on cumulative number of words read accurately and cumulative learning rate. Participants were six first graders who needed intensive intervention services. Alternating treatment designs were used to compare the effects of interspersal drill, a phonic analysis method consisting of word boxes (WB), and traditional drill and practice procedure on word-reading performance. The current study extended this line of inquiry by including a phonic analysis condition and a measure of generalization. Results revealed that four students' cumulative word-reading performances were greater under the phonic analysis condition. However, all students' cumulative rate of reading words was greater under the traditional drill and practice condition. As a group, there were no significant differences across conditions on maintaining and generalizing words. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 44: 319–332, 2007.