This investigation examines teacher and child perceptions of teacher–child relationships and early school adjustment among children (N = 157) in low-income urban schools. Consistent with prior research, findings indicated that teacher–child relationships were associated with early school adjustment; however, the strength of this association varied depending on perspective (i.e., teacher vs. student) and by student characteristic. Associations between predictor and criterion variables were stronger for within-rater perspectives than across raters. Children's race moderated the association between teacher–child relationships and early school adjustment when examining data from the same source (i.e., teacher) and across raters (i.e., teacher and student). Gender did not moderate these associations. The implications of these findings for future research focused on understanding teacher–child relationships are discussed. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.