The recently published second edition of the Differential Abilities Scale (DAS-II) is designed to measure multiple broad and general abilities from Cattell–Horn–Carroll (CHC) theory. Although the technical manual presents information supporting the test's structure, additional research is needed to determine the constructs measured by the test and the consistency of measurement across ages. The purposes of this research were to determine whether the DAS-II measures the CHC abilities it is designed to measure and whether it does so consistently across the 4 to 17 year age span. We analyzed competing higher-order CFA models using 800 participants, ages 5 through 8, from the DAS-II standardization. The final validation model from this series of analyses tested for factor invariance across the 4 to 17 year age span by using a reference variable approach. Our findings supported the DAS-II's intended structure, with minor exceptions. Findings also supported the invariance of the DAS-II CHC model across the 4 to 17 year age span, again with minor exceptions. Despite the use of different tests at different ages, the DAS-II measures a consistent set of CHC abilities across the ages: g, Gc, Gf, Gv, Gsm, Gs, and a narrow Glr ability; psychologists should interpret the DAS-II as measuring these abilities. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.