A number of evidence-based, cognitive-behavioral interventions have been developed that are appropriate for use with children and adolescents in school settings. Despite the potential for these interventions to prevent or ameliorate a number of child and adolescent mental health problems, their use in schools remains low. Literature related to implementation of new programs indicates that personal, social, and organizational factors influence implementation success. What is known in general about implementation of new programs and practices, and what is known specifically about implementation of cognitive-behavioral interventions in schools, is reviewed. An examination of existing studies on implementation of cognitive-behavioral interventions in schools indicates that five factors have been found most frequently to influence implementation success: school organizational structure; program characteristics; fit with school goals, policies, and programs; training/technical assistance; and administrator support. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.