The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB-V), based on the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of intelligence using a sample of 200 preschool children. The CHC framework uses three different models: one similar to Spearman's g, one similar to the Gf-Gc model, and one representing the hierarchical three-stratum CHC model. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), utilizing these three models, was conducted to determine which theoretical model best described the ability structure measured by the SB-V. Results of the CFA revealed that, although the two-stratum model provided the best fit statistics, a large amount of overlap existed among the broad CHC factors in this model. Therefore, these results suggested that a simple, overall ability model may be the best representation of ability for preschool children when using the SB-V because the factors appeared to be indistinct with this age group. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.