Type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is one of the most common chronic illnesses in children and youth, with many affected students requiring individualized services and supports within educational settings. This article systematically reviews the research regarding the implications of this illness for students' cognitive and academic functioning to clarify the ways in which this disease may limit children's learning and school performance. The authors synthesize the findings, summarize the related literature regarding school-based supports, and provide recommendations for school psychologists to support the unique psychoeducational needs of this population. Results highlight the need for more research on effective school-based interventions to ensure academic success for children with T1DM. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.