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Research has demonstrated that many children have learning problems related to deficits in specific cognitive processes that are not adequately represented by a single IQ score. The administration of cognitive measures that include narrow abilities is useful in understanding specific learning problems and developing effective interventions. However, school psychology training programs have not readily adopted contemporary assessment practices. This article reviews the historical and legislative factors influencing school psychologists’ use of intellectual measures for identifying children with learning and other high-incidence disabilities. Distinctions between contemporary cognitive assessment and traditional IQ testing are reviewed. Specific challenges to incorporating evidence-based assessment practice within school psychology training programs are identified. Guidelines for using alternative research-based procedures that include the use of cognitive measures to assess a child's strengths and weaknesses are provided. Potential directions for the application of cognitive theory in educational settings, professional training in appropriate interpretive strategies, and ethical guidance for the appropriate use of cognitive measures are also discussed.