This study sought to evaluate whether a one-trial brief experimental analysis (OTBEA) would reliably and validly identify effective treatments to improve oral reading fluency for 6 elementary school students referred for reading problems. An OTBEA was conducted with each participant to assess the effects of skill- and performance-based treatment components. Following the OTBEA, an extended analysis was conducted using an alternating treatments design to experimentally assess whether predictions generated by the OTBEA would be accurate across sessions, time, and stimulus materials. OTBEA results suggested that 3 participants required a treatment package containing both performance-based and skill-based instructional components and that the other 3 participants might only need performance-based interventions. Results indicate that predictions were accurate for those participants requiring both types of intervention components, but that predictions for the remaining participants met with mixed results in the extended analysis. Results are discussed in terms of further refining brief experimental analysis methods to make them more efficient for educators while ensuring valid results.