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This study focused on violent and prosocial behaviors by adolescents toward parents and teachers, and the relation between such behaviors and adolescents’ perceptions about the family and school environment. Gender differences in child-to-parent violence and student-to-teacher violence were also studied. The sample comprised 687 adolescents from secondary schools in the province of Gipuzkoa, Spain, aged between 12 and 16 years. Participants responded to the relationship domains of the Family Environment Scale and the Classroom Environment Scale, among other instruments. A positive family relationship was related to less violent and more prosocial behavior toward parents. However, a positive classroom relationship was associated only with more prosocial behavior toward teachers. The results show that criminal and antisocial behaviors had a mediating influence on the relation between family and school relationships and violence against authority. The implications for intervention and prevention programs are discussed.