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Correspondence to: Minglee Yong, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Washington, 402 Miller Hall, Box 353600, Seattle, WA 98195-3600. E-mail:


The purpose of this study is to identify the essential features of Tier 2 interventions conducted within multitier systems of behavior support in schools. A systematic literature search identified 12 empirical studies that were coded and scored according to a list of Tier 2 specific RE-AIM criteria, related to the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance. Most studies met the following criteria: efficient identification of students, training required for staff implementation, integration with Tier 1 support, standard protocol approach, assessment of implementation fidelity, and parental involvement. However, there was less consistency in meeting the following criteria: reliable and valid methods for student identification, weekly data review to monitor progress, evaluation of behavioral and learning outcomes, program length of between 2 to 6 months, use of maintenance strategies, and teacher involvement. For the subsequent descriptive analysis, the 12 studies were categorized into 6 groups and the strategies used to address RE-AIM criteria were compared and discussed. The essential features identified will help researchers replicate Tier 2 interventions and help schools select and adapt Tier 2 interventions that are matched to their needs and resources.