As the number of individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders grows, leaders are increasingly recognizing the limitations of the existing literature base to serve unique subsets of students on the spectrum. To date, there is a dearth of research regarding individuals who are both diagnosed on the spectrum and identified as gifted or high ability. This article provides a theoretical structure to guide professionals working with this population, as well as recommendations for further research. The High Ability/Autism puzzle includes three interlocking pieces that must be connected. First, this population must be appropriately defined, and then second, that definition must guide how professionals identify members of this population. Third, identification methods must inform the educational programming decisions to best serve the High Ability/Autism population. The definition, identification, and available programs must be interrelated to provide appropriate support and guidance for this unique population. This article will outline this process and make recommendations for both practitioners and researchers committed to gifted individuals on the spectrum.