This study investigated the capacity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory's (MMPI-2) restructured clinical (RC) scales to predict treatment outcomes of inpatient psychotherapy concerning long-term changes in the level of psychopathology for patients with personality disorders. The predictive capacity of the RC scales is compared with that of the clinical scales. The MMPI-2 was administered at baseline. We followed up 179 patients for 36 months. The Brief Symptom Inventory measured the symptom changes between baseline and the end of the treatment as well as between baseline and 36 months. The RC2 (Low Positive Emotions) scale and RC8 (Aberrant Experiences) scale predicted lower levels of symptomatic improvements at 36 months. These scales did not have a significantly better performance than the original clinical scales. The RC2 and the 2(Depression) scale of the clinical scales predicted less improvement at 36 months. These findings emphasize that the RC scales should not be used alone or as a replacement for the clinical scales. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.