Proteomics was used to search for putative thioredoxin (TRX) targets in leaves of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. About forty different proteins have been found to be reduced by TRX, after TRX itself has been specifically reduced by its NADPH-dependent reductase. Twenty-one of the identified proteins were already known or recently proposed to be TRX-dependent and nineteen of the proteins were new potential targets. The identified proteins are involved in a wide variety of processes, including the Calvin cycle, metabolism, photosynthesis, folding, defense against oxidative stress and amino acid synthesis. Two proteins from the glycine cleavage complex were also identified as putative TRX targets, and a new role can be postulated in leaves for TRX in defense against herbivores and/or pathogens.