• α-Amylase-trypsin inhibitors;
  • Dough;
  • Foam;
  • Soluble proteins;
  • Wheat


Proteomic methods have been used to identify foam-forming soluble proteins from dough that may play an important role in stabilising gas bubbles in dough, and hence influence the crumb structure of bread. Proteins from a soluble fraction of dough (dough liquor) or dough liquor foam have been separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and 42 identified using a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight and quadrupole-time of flight analyses. Major polypeptide components included β-amylase, tritin and serpins, with members of the α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family being particularly abundant. Neither prolamin seed storage proteins nor the surface-active protein puroindoline were found. Commonly used dough ingredients (NaCl, Na L-ascorbate) had only a minor effect on the 2-DE protein profiles of dough liquor, of which one of the more significant was the loss of 9 kDa nonspecific lipid transfer protein. Many proteins were lost in dough liquor foam, particularly tritin, whilst a number of α-amylase inhibitors were more dominant, suggesting that these are amongst the most strongly surface-active proteins in dough liquor. Such proteins may play a role determining the ability of the aqueous phase of doughs, as represented by dough liquor, to form an elastic interface lining the bubbles, and hence maintain their integrity during dough proving.