A strategy for high-resolution protein identification in surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: Calgranulin A and chaperonin 10 as protein markers for endometrial carcinoma

Authors

  • Jingzhong Guo,

    1. Department of Chemistry and Centre for Research in Mass Spectrometry
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  • Eric C. C. Yang,

    1. Department of Chemistry and Centre for Research in Mass Spectrometry
    2. Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Leroi DeSouza,

    1. Department of Chemistry and Centre for Research in Mass Spectrometry
    2. Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Georg Diehl,

    1. Department of Chemistry and Centre for Research in Mass Spectrometry
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  • Mary Joe Rodrigues,

    1. Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Alexander D. Romaschin,

    1. Biochemistry, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    2. Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Terence J. Colgan,

    1. Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    2. Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • K. W. Michael Siu

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemistry and Centre for Research in Mass Spectrometry
    2. Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • Department of Chemistry and Centre for Research in Mass Spectrometry, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M3J 1P3 Fax:+1-416-736-5936
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Abstract

Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (SELDI-MS) has conventionally been practiced on linear time of flight (TOF) which has low mass accuracy and resolution. Here we demonstrate in an examination of both malignant and nonmalignant endometrial tissue homogenates that high mass accuracy and resolution in the MS stage are crucial. Using a commercially available quadrupole/TOF (QqTOF), we were able to resolve two potential cancer markers, subsequently identified off-line as chaperonin 10 and calgranulin A, that differ by 8 Da in mass. Two off-line protein identification protocols were developed: the first was based on size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), protein extraction, trypsin digestion, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem MS (MALDI-MS/MS); the second on SEC and shotgun nano-liquid chromatography (nanoLC)-MS/MS. Analyses on a cohort of 44 endometrial homogenates showed 22 out of 23 nonmalignant samples had nondetectable to very low abundance of chaperonin 10 and calgranulin A; 17 of the 21 malignant samples had detectable to abundant levels of both proteins. Immunohistochemical staining of a tissue microarray of 32 samples showed that approximately half of malignant endometrial tissues exhibited positive staining for calgranulin A in the malignant epithelium, while 9 out of 10 benign tissues exhibited negative epithelial staining. In addition, macrophages/granulocytes in malignant as well as nonmalignant tissues showed positive staining. No immunostaining occurred in stroma or myometrium. Calgranulin A, in combination with chaperonin 10 and other proteins, may eventually constitute a panel of markers to permit diagnosis and screening of endometrial cancer.

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