Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (SELDI-MS) has conventionally been practiced on linear time of flight (TOF) which has low mass accuracy and resolution. Here we demonstrate in an examination of both malignant and nonmalignant endometrial tissue homogenates that high mass accuracy and resolution in the MS stage are crucial. Using a commercially available quadrupole/TOF (QqTOF), we were able to resolve two potential cancer markers, subsequently identified off-line as chaperonin 10 and calgranulin A, that differ by 8 Da in mass. Two off-line protein identification protocols were developed: the first was based on size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), protein extraction, trypsin digestion, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem MS (MALDI-MS/MS); the second on SEC and shotgun nano-liquid chromatography (nanoLC)-MS/MS. Analyses on a cohort of 44 endometrial homogenates showed 22 out of 23 nonmalignant samples had nondetectable to very low abundance of chaperonin 10 and calgranulin A; 17 of the 21 malignant samples had detectable to abundant levels of both proteins. Immunohistochemical staining of a tissue microarray of 32 samples showed that approximately half of malignant endometrial tissues exhibited positive staining for calgranulin A in the malignant epithelium, while 9 out of 10 benign tissues exhibited negative epithelial staining. In addition, macrophages/granulocytes in malignant as well as nonmalignant tissues showed positive staining. No immunostaining occurred in stroma or myometrium. Calgranulin A, in combination with chaperonin 10 and other proteins, may eventually constitute a panel of markers to permit diagnosis and screening of endometrial cancer.