Chronic infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) is closely correlated with serious liver diseases. Although considerable progress has been made during recent years, the mechanism of replication and pathogenesis of HCV infection are still elusive. We have applied proteomic techniques in this work to globally analyze the protein expression profiles of a human liver cell lines Huh7 in absence and presence of HCV replication, aiming at elucidating the components of HCV replication and the cellular responses to HCV replication. The protein mixtures of three subcellular fractions from Huh7 and Huh7-HCV were separated by 2-DE under various pH gradients. Differentially expressed spots were identified by MALDI-TOF MS, followed by database searching. A total of 179 comparative proteins were identified unambiguously, including proteins associated with host cytoskeleton, intracellular traffic, oxidative and ER stress, proteasome degradation, translation, apoptosis, proliferation, etc. Host proteins known to interact with HCV proteins, such as HSP27, α-actinin, nucleolin and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A-I, were elevated in Huh7-HCV cells. Our study provides the global information of proteomic alteration of Huh7 cells in the presence of HCV replication and the clues for further understanding of the mechanism of HCV replication and pathogenesis.