Tropospheric ozone pollution is described as having major negative effects on plants, compromising plant survival. Carbon metabolism is especially affected. In the present work, the effects of chronic ozone exposure were evaluated at the proteomic level in developing leaves of young poplar plants exposed to 120 ppb of ozone for 35 days. Soluble proteins (excluding intrinsic membrane proteins) were extracted from leaves after 3, 14 and 35 days of ozone exposure, as well as 10 days after a recovery period. Proteins (pI 4 to 7) were analyzed by 2-D DIGE experiments, followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF identification. Additional observations were obtained on growth, lesion formation, and leaf pigments analysis. Although treated plants showed large necrotic spots and chlorosis in mature leaves, growth decreased only slightly and plant height was not affected. The number of abscised leaves was higher in treated plants, but new leaf formation was not affected. A decrease in chlorophylls and lutein contents was recorded. A large number of proteins involved in carbon metabolism were identified. In particular, proteins associated with the Calvin cycle and electron transport in the chloroplast were down-regulated. In contrast, proteins associated with glucose catabolism increased in response to ozone exposure. Other identified enzymes are associated with protein folding, nitrogen metabolism and oxidoreductase activity.