Phosphate limitation in Streptomyces and in other bacteria triggers expression changes of a large number of genes. This response is mediated by the two-component PhoR–PhoP system. A Streptomyces coelicolor ΔphoP mutant (lacking phoP) has been obtained by gene replacement. A genome-wide analysis of the primary response to phosphate limitation using transcriptomic and proteomic studies has been made in the parental S. coelicolor M145 and in the ΔphoP mutant strains. Statistical analysis of the contrasts between the four sets of data generated (two strains under two phosphate conditions) allowed the classification of all genes into 12 types of profiles. The primary response to phosphate limitation involves upregulation of genes encoding scavenging enzymes needed to obtain phosphate from different phosphorylated organic compounds and overexpression of the high-affinity phosphate transport system pstSCAB. Clear interactions have been found between phosphate metabolism and expression of nitrogen-regulated genes and between phosphate and nitrate respiration genes. PhoP-dependent repressions of antibiotic biosynthesis and of the morphological differentiation genes correlated with the observed ΔphoP mutant phenotype. Bioinformatic analysis of the presence of PHO boxes (PhoP-binding sequences) in the upstream regions of PhoP-controlled genes were validated by binding of PhoP, as shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assays.