The extraordinary ability of the liver to regenerate after resection continues to be an important fascination to mammalian liver researchers. However, at present, there are still several central questions regarding the process of liver regeneration that are not clear. In our study, we try to clarify how the liver is able to maintain its functions as well as to initiate liver regeneration after a significant loss of two-thirds. Here differentially expressed proteins in rat livers at 1 h after partial hepatectomy (PHx) and sham operation were analyzed using 2-DE combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. After the analysis, 24 significantly changed spots (ratio≥2, p<0.05) were identified. Those proteins are involved in important liver functions such as metabolism, detoxification, and inflammation. Based on the changes in the protein levels found in our data, we identified two aspects of remnant liver immediately after PHx, which focused on the hepatic adaptation and the inflammatory response associated with the initiation of liver regeneration after PHx. For the first time, the differential expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHX), paraoxonase 1 (PON1), thyroid hormone receptor β, GAP43 (where GAP stands for growth-associated protein), and interleukin-2 (IL2), after PHx, were validated by Western blot.