Convulsive status epilepticus is associated with subsequent hippocampal damage and development of mesial temporal sclerosis in a subset of individuals. The lithium pilocarpine model of status epilepticus (SE) in the rat provides a model in which to investigate the molecular and pathogenic process leading to hippocampal damage. In this study, a 2-DE-based approach was used to detect proteome changes in the hippocampus, at an early stage (2 days) after SE, when increased T2 values were detectable by magnetic resonance imaging. Gel image analysis was followed by LC-MS/MS identification of protein species that differed in abundance between pilocarpine-treated and control rats. The most significantly up-regulated species in the experimental animals was identified as heat shock 27-kDa protein, in line with findings in humans and in other experimental models of epilepsy. Additional up-regulated species included dihydropyrimidinase-related protein-2, cytoskeletal proteins (α-tubulin and ezrin) and dihydropteridine reductase. In summary, the hippocampus of rats subject to pilocarpine-induced SE exhibits specific changes in protein abundance, which likely relate to pathogenic, neuroprotective and neurogenic responses.