Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are adult multipotential progenitors which have a high potential in regenerative medicine. They can be isolated from different tissues throughout the body and their homogeneity in terms of phenotype and differentiation capacities is a real concern. To address this issue, we conducted a 2-DE gel analysis of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from bone marrow (BM), adipose tissue, synovial membrane and umbilical vein wall. We confirmed that BM and adipose tissue derived cells were very similar, which argue for their interchangeable use for cell therapy. We also compared human mesenchymal to embryonic stem cells and showed that umbilical vein wall stem cells, a neo-natal cell type, were closer to BM cells than to embryonic stem cells. Based on these proteomic data, we could propose a panel of proteins which were the basis for the definition of a mesenchymal stem cell proteomic signature.