• Kinase;
  • Lactococcus lactis;
  • Phosphatase;
  • Phosphoproteome;
  • Phosphorylation


Recent phosphoproteomics studies of several bacterial species have firmly established protein phosphorylation on Ser/Thr/Tyr residues as a PTM in bacteria. In particular, our recent reports on the Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphoproteomes of bacterial model organisms Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli detected over 100 phosphorylation events in each of the bacterial species. Here we extend our analyses to Lactococcus lactis, a lactic acid bacterium widely employed by the food industry, in which protein phosphorylation at Ser/Thr/Tyr residues was barely studied at all. Despite the lack of almost any prior evidence of Ser/Thr/Tyr protein phosphorylation in L. lactis, we identified a phosphoproteome of a size comparable to that of E. coli and B. subtilis, with 73 phosphorylation sites distributed over 63 different proteins. The presence of several multiply phosphorylated proteins, as well as over-representation of phosphothreonines seems to be the distinguishing features of the L. lactis phosphoproteome. Evolutionary comparison and the conservation of phosphorylation sites in different bacterial organisms indicate that a majority of the detected phosphorylation sites are species–specific, and therefore have probably co-evolved with the adaptation of the bacterial species to their present-day ecological niches.