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Keywords:

  • Heart;
  • LC-MS and GRAVY (hydrophobicity) annotation;
  • Mass spectrometry;
  • Membrane proteins;
  • Protein identification

Abstract

Heart diseases resulting in heart failure are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Western world and can result from either systemic disease (e.g., hypertensive heart disease, ischemic heart disease) or specific heart muscle disease (e.g., dilated cardiomyopathy/DCM). Subproteome analysis of such disease subsets affords a reduction in sample complexity, potentially revealing biomarkers of cardiac failure that would otherwise remain undiscovered in proteome wide studies. Label-free nanoscale LC-MS has been applied in this study to validate a Triton X-114-based phase enrichment method for cardiac membrane proteins. Annotation of the subcellular location combined with GRAVY score analysis indicates a clear separation between soluble and membrane-bound proteins with an enrichment of over 62% for this protein subset. LC-MS allowed confident identification and annotation of hydrophobic proteins in this control sample pilot study and demonstrates the power of the proposed technique to extract integral membrane-bound proteins. This approach should be applicable to a wider scale study of disease-associated changes in the cardiac membrane subproteome.